German Cavalry in Brussels, 1914

German Cavalry in Brussels, 1914


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German Cavalry in Brussels, 1914

German cavalry passes along a street in Brussels soon after the German occupation in the summer of 1914.


Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by AJFFM » 23 Jun 2016, 19:29

I think one has to ask the question if the Austrian, Russian, British and French cavalry was even less successful in their mission of strategic reconnaissance and screening. A very thorough discussion of the various cavalry missions (and examples of mission success) can be found in "Cavalry Combat" published by the US Cavalry School in 1937.

The Russian cavalry failed miserably throughout the war. They had the largest cavalry force of the war and yet failed to make use of it against the open spaces in East Prussia and Poland. Indeed German cavalry screening in the east was probably the most successful cavalry operation of the entire war (even more than British cavalry action in Palestine) especially in the lead up and the aftermath of Tannenberg.

For the British and the French the results were mixed with failures earlier in the battle of the frontiers but much more success during the race to the sea as well as Palestine.

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by Sheldrake » 23 Jun 2016, 23:48

I think one has to ask the question if the Austrian, Russian, British and French cavalry was even less successful in their mission of strategic reconnaissance and screening. A very thorough discussion of the various cavalry missions (and examples of mission success) can be found in "Cavalry Combat" published by the US Cavalry School in 1937.

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by jluetjen » 24 Jun 2016, 00:55

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by jluetjen » 24 Jun 2016, 01:05

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by jluetjen » 24 Jun 2016, 02:16

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by Sheldrake » 24 Jun 2016, 09:08

Weapons are only as good as the training of the soldiers who wield them. As Guderian pointed out, the focus of pre 1914 cavalry training was on mounted action, and training focused on horseman-ship, manoeuvring in close order and mounted attack. The German army had only three years to train their conscripts before they were returned to civilian work. By contrast the regular nine years service of the British cavalryman gave them the time to acquire the breadth of skills for both dismounted and mounted action. Its troopers used the same rifle as the infantry and were trained to the same exacting standards of marksmanship.

The BEF were not impressed by the quality of the German cavalry they faced. After the charge by the 4th Dragoon Guards north of Mons on the 21st August 1914, the medical officer commented that the Germans were "plough-boys on cart horses"

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by AJFFM » 24 Jun 2016, 12:34

I'm not sure that I would agree with that. The "Schutzen" units were actually dismounted cavalry. By the end of the war the horses were needed for other things -- like pulling artillery and train vehicles, and so many of the cavalry regiments were converted into infantry, or often storm-troop regiments. I know that in the case of the 5th Cavalry Division it was desolved in January 1918 and converted to the "Guard Cavalry Infantry Division" (i.e. dismounted), and more specifically the Lieb Kurassier Regiment and the Dragoon Regiment Nr 8 became the "Schutzen Command Nr. 11". These two regiments went through storm trooper training to become a "Sturmstossdivision". They were then deployed in Souain in France. I think that the aggressive, attacking mindset of the cavalry was presumed to be a good starting point for storm troopers.

Cron's book is admittedly difficult to follow with respect to cavalry largely because the German Arm'y approach to cavalry was never a uniform one like in other armies. Schutzen Cavalry divisions and regiments either became basically infantry brigade/battalions with no horses or kept some horses in squadrons attached to those Schutzen units and then some were dissolved and others were dismounted infantry that kept their cavalry designation but were not given Schutzen designation.

In all the Germans had 33 mounted regiments by the end of the war (down from 110) including some Schutzen units that arrived as mounted in the Spring of 1918 but were dismounted and fought as infantry.

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by jluetjen » 24 Jun 2016, 22:48

Sheldrake wrote: Weapons are only as good as the training of the soldiers who wield them. As Guderian pointed out, the focus of pre 1914 cavalry training was on mounted action, and training focused on horseman-ship, manoeuvring in close order and mounted attack. The German army had only three years to train their conscripts before they were returned to civilian work. By contrast the regular nine years service of the British cavalryman gave them the time to acquire the breadth of skills for both dismounted and mounted action. Its troopers used the same rifle as the infantry and were trained to the same exacting standards of marksmanship.

The BEF were not impressed by the quality of the German cavalry they faced. After the charge by the 4th Dragoon Guards north of Mons on the 21st August 1914, the medical officer commented that the Germans were "plough-boys on cart horses"

Wait! You had brought up the weapons, which I was addressing. Now you dismiss it and jump to the training and quality -- completely different subjects.

I'll come back to your other points later. I've got to run now.

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by Sheldrake » 25 Jun 2016, 11:04

Sheldrake wrote: Weapons are only as good as the training of the soldiers who wield them. As Guderian pointed out, the focus of pre 1914 cavalry training was on mounted action, and training focused on horseman-ship, manoeuvring in close order and mounted attack. The German army had only three years to train their conscripts before they were returned to civilian work. By contrast the regular nine years service of the British cavalryman gave them the time to acquire the breadth of skills for both dismounted and mounted action. Its troopers used the same rifle as the infantry and were trained to the same exacting standards of marksmanship.

The BEF were not impressed by the quality of the German cavalry they faced. After the charge by the 4th Dragoon Guards north of Mons on the 21st August 1914, the medical officer commented that the Germans were "plough-boys on cart horses"

Wait! You had brought up the weapons, which I was addressing. Now you dismiss it and jump to the training and quality -- completely different subjects.

I'll come back to your other points later. I've got to run now.

The difference between the effectiveness of small arms is a minor point compared to the marksmanship and tactical competence of the firer.

Furthermore the firepower of dismounted cavalry troops of 1914 was small compared to that of the machine guns and artillery supporting the formation.

A German cavalry Corps of 12 Regiments was was roughly comparable to the British Cavalry Division with the same number of regiments and faced each other on the Western flank of the advance from Mons. They had the same number of horse artillery pieces - 24 guns

Each British Cavalry Regiment had a section of two machine guns, giving Allenby's troopers 24. Each German cavalry division included a jaeger battalions with six machine guns making a total of 12 in a Cavalry Corps - half the number available to the British. Furthermore these tended to be deployed as a battery , as at Nery and the loss of the guns and machine guns crippled the 4th German Cavalry division after that action.

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by Latze » 28 Jun 2016, 22:59

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by jluetjen » 29 Jun 2016, 00:37

Latze I think that we agree in so much that the Jäger zu Pferde were armed with Gew 98a, which was really less of a carbine than a "short rifle" like the Lee-Enfield SMLE. Traditionally carbines fired a smaller round, sometimes a pistol round. The Gew 98a fired the same round as the Gew 98. The KAR98 used in WWII was really more of a longer descendant of the Gew 98az than shorter version of the Gew 98 -- although at that point the distinctions between them are fairly few.

As far as I know when in the field all of the German Cavalry were equipped the same way in regards to weapons.

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by jluetjen » 29 Jun 2016, 01:49

I think that you need to be careful taking the comments of a single person at a single event out of context.
1) First off - "plough-boys" (aka farmers) rarely served in cavalry. Because of the costs associated with supplying and supporting the horses, as well as the additional equestrian training, most members of a cavalry regiment tended to be from the upper of half of German society. There would be members of the Junker class, but they tended to not be hands-on farmers. It's not like members of the middle class were not present in those units, but often they needed to be sponsored. The lower classes (ie. village farmers and laborers, industrial workers etc.) rarely appeared in the German cavalry.

2) Cart horses -- Germany had a fairly sophisticated horse breeding and remount support system for the cavalry. As of 1911 the German military was only buying up about half of the horses available to them.

In general I've noted that generally the Germans tended to speak respectfully of the British soldiers' abilities. They never took them for granted. On the other hand the British tended to often speak disparagingly of the Germans, often with a fairly strong propaganda tone to their comments. Given that the British were retreating it's hard to take such comments at face value.

As far as the specific charge that you noted, I believe that you are referring to this exchange as described by Wikipedia's article on the 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards:
Perhaps the most notable engagement of the regiment was at the outbreak of World War I on 22 August 1914, when a squadron of the regiment became the first members of the British Expeditionary Force to engage the German army outside Mons four patrolling German cavalrymen of the 2nd Kuirassiers were surprised by two full troops of British cavalry, and after a brief pursuit several were killed. Captain Hornby was reputed to have become the first British soldier to kill a German soldier, using his sword, and Drummer Edward Thomas is reputed to have fired the first British shots of the war.[1]
Reference The War Illustrated, Who fired the First Shot?

Note that it was a two troops of the 4th Dragoons (about 68 troopers) against what appears to be an NCO's patrol of German 4 cavalrymen from Kürassier-Regiment „Königin“ Nr. 2. As such the skirmish was too small to be mentioned in von Posek's history of the German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914. Looking at the history of Kürassier-Regiment Nr. 2 in "Die deutsche Kavallerie in Krieg und Frieden" they don't really mention much about WWI, let alone that minor exchange. Compared to other units, there is very little said about their activities in WWI.

Generally the "chasing of the opponents cavalry from the area" was one of the standard roles of the cavalry. The Germans would certainly have not hung around given those odds, but given the element of surprise on the part of the British it sounds like the Germans were caught out. Hardly an engagement on which you could draw widespread conclusions regarding the cavalry of the two sides.

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by Sheldrake » 29 Jun 2016, 09:05

This is the incident, though the War Illustrated was a wartime publication written by someone whose military knowledge was limited enough not to notice that Thomas was a "Trooper" rather than a "Drummer". Thomas himself recalled seeing a mounted German officer gesticulating as hie disposed of German dismounted troopers some four hundred yards away. Captain Hornby chased and caught some of the mounted men, killing at least one. The 4th DG claim to have captured five prisoners and reported that the lance equipped Germans were at a disadvantage. Given that the 4th DG captured five prisoners, more than four Germans hav eto have been involved

However imbalanced the numbers at Castenau, the British impression was formed and reinforced at the other main cavalry v cavalty actions, Moy, Nery and and le Moncel.

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by AJFFM » 29 Jun 2016, 17:43

Re: German Cavalry on the Western Front in 1914

Post by Latze » 30 Jun 2016, 09:41

I am not interested in semantics here or in an iron clad definition what constitutes a carbine. The relevant point is that Jäger zu Pferde were equipped with lances and Karabiner 98 and trained like all other German cavalry. Dismounted combat was part of cavalry training but neither before the war nor during it the Jäger zu Pferde were doing this 'more' than any other German cavalry. So, I think you were just mistaken in your initial post.


The History Of Manneken Pis, Brussels, In 1 Minute

A symbol of defiance from a small city with a strange sense of humor. Knowing these historic facts will certainly make your visit to the Manneken Pis statue more interesting and help you understand how this funny little statue captured the hearts of its residents, and is still relevant today.

The name of this tiny statue simply translates to ‘Peeing boy’ — while the French version, Petit Julien, literally means ‘Little Julien’. While the statue you can see at the corner of the Rue de l’Étuv and the Rue du Chêne is a replica from the 17th century statue, the original stone version is much older.

The statue most probably started out as a public fountain, with the peeing boy as a homage to the tanners, as medieval tanners let children and street urchins pee on leather to make it more supple.

Time passed and people forgot how the statue got there in the first place, so incredible legends started to explain its origins. The most popular story states how the little peeing boy saved the capital. In this tale, Brussels was surrounded by enemies. One day they seemingly retreated, but had really put tons of gunpowder under the city. A little boy saw the burning fuse and quickly peed on it. In another well-loved tale the peeing boy is actually a historic figure, Duke Godfrey III of Leuven. As a child, he was put in a basket in an oak tree to encourage the knights fighting in his honor. Every now and then the toddler stood up and peed on the heads of his enemies.

To illustrate how important Manneken Pis is to the Brussels residents, in 1747 French grenadiers from Louis XV of France’s army thought it would be funny to steal the ridiculous statue. Threatened with a huge riot, Louis severely punished the jokers and gave Manneken back to the city, dressed in expensive brocade, embroidered with gold and decorated with the cross of Saint-Louis.

That wasn’t the only war and abduction Manneken Pis survived — he has been stolen, retrieved, destroyed and remade several times throughout history. The little peeing boy made it through the terrible bombardements of 1695 that leveled a good chunk of the city, and was unscathed during the world wars.

In 1914, after German troops had invaded Belgium, a cartoon of the little Manneken peeing on German soldiers was seen on the cover of a satirical newspaper. While the face of Brussels may change, the little peeing boy is still a well-loved icon as well as a symbol of defiance and resilience — an ‘up yours’ to every danger that threatens the city.


Spanish Brussels

When the County of Brabant and Duchy of Burgundy became one, Brussels became the region’s capital. In 1477 Brussels became part of the Spanish Empire and it became the seat of the governors of Flanders.

In 1609 the northern United Provinces became independent and Brussels became the capital of the Habsburg Netherlands. Curiously, the emperor Charles V abdicated as King of Spain in Brussels.

Brussels played an important role in the holy wars. During the thirteenth century it was one of the focus points of the heresy of the Beghards. During this period Brussels became renowned for its tolerance and this is why Desiderius Erasmus decided to move to the city. In later years, Lutheranism and Calvinism would become widely accepted in Brussels.

In 1567 the political and religious conflicts spread throughout Flanders and Philip II of Spain sent the Duke of Alba to put an end to these clashes and became famous for the relentless repression he carried out in the region. He instituted the Council of Troubles to punish the leaders of the political and religious troubles in the Netherlands. This council caused a great malaise among the inhabitants and was one of the causes of the Eighty Years’ War or the “Dutch War of Independence”.

When William I, Prince of Orange revolted against Spain, helped by the pirates, Brussels supported the independence of the United Provinces.

The city sunk into an economic crisis due to the many years of political instability and didn’t recover until Isabella Clara Eugenia, daughter of Philip II of Spain married the ruling Archduke of Austria, Albert VII and resided in Brussels.

The Treaty of Utrecht was signed in 1713 and Brussels was handed over to Austria.


From German Cavalry Officer to Reconnaissance Pilot: The World War I History, Memories, and Photographs of Leonhard Rempe, 1914-1921

Twenty-one-year-old Leonhard Rempe volunteered to serve Germany in 1914. By the time World War One ended, he had seen action on both major fronts, witnessed the war from the back of a horse and the cockpit of plane, and amassed one of the more unique records of anyone in the Kaiser&rsquos army. From German Cavalry Officer to Reconnaissance Pilot is his remarkable story.

Rempe initially served as a cavalryman in the 35th (1st West Prussian) Field Artillery of the XX Armee-Korps, fighting in several bloody and significant battles against the Russians on the Eastern Front. In 1916, he exchanged his spurs for the cockpit and transferred to the Western front. Flying specially built planes for reconnaissance work was dangerous duty, but Rempe relished his time in the open cockpits, flying at altitudes high and low to provide detailed intelligence information for the German army. He met and knew many of the pilots who flew in both fighter and reconnaissance planes, including Manfred von Richthoven&mdashthe Red Baron. Unlike so many of his fellow pilots, Rempe survived several crashes, and was shot down over Reims, France, in March of 1918.

At war&rsquos end, Rempe returned to a defeated Germany in the midst of turmoil and revolution and served briefly in a Freikorps (Free Corps) regiment dedicated to preserving the new government in Weimar against German Communists. Seeking a new beginning, he arrived at Ellis Island in the spring of 1923 to start his life as an American. He brought with him flight reports, other miscellaneous documents, and scores of remarkable photographs documenting his wartime service, most of which are published here for the first time. During 1956, the last year of his life, Rempe penned a brief memoir of his World War One service which, together with the photographic record, forms the basis of From German Cavalry Officer to Reconnaissance Pilot.

Using primary and secondary sources Dr. Paul Rempe provides insight into the grim realities of Leonhard&rsquos war while his father&rsquos own memoir recalls his special comradeship with his fellow soldiers and airmen. From German Cavalry Officer to Reconnaissance Pilot adds substantially to the growing literature of the First World War, and paints a unique and compelling portrait of a young German caught up in the deadly jaws of mass industrialized war.

&ldquoLeonhard Rempe was a cavalryman, artillery observer, and pilot in the Kaiser&rsquos Heer and the Freikorps and Provisional Reichswehr. He was also a keen observer of the events he experienced, as well as a diligent archivist and memoirist. Now, years later, his son, Paul, shares his father&rsquos memories, reflections, and artifacts with us. There are many histories, biographies, and memoirs about the Great War, but few books combine them into a single story. This is one of them, a rare and special account, the memories of a soldier who served his Fatherland in the trenches and the cockpit of a warplane and lived to reflect on those experiences late in his life. In an age where so many World War I histories simply rehash well-known material, From German Cavalry Officer to Reconnaissance Pilot is a fresh and insightful look into those violent times by a man who lived them.&rdquo (Richard L. Bennett, former President of the League of World War I Aviation Historians)

". an interesting personal view of World War I and its tumultuous aftermath. It is recommended." (Over the Front)


German Army Structure The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire. The term Deutsches Heer is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the Bundeswehr. The German Army was formed after the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in 1871, and dissolved in 1919, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.

The basic peacetime organizational structure of the Imperial German Army was based around the Army inspectorate (Armee-Inspektion), the army corps (Armeekorps), the division, and the regiment. During wartime, the staff of the Army inspectorates formed field army commands, which controlled the corps and subordinate units. During World War I, a higher command level, the army group (Heeresgruppe) was created. Each army group controlled several field armies.

Military Service - Conscription.

All European countries, except Britain, required compulsory military service for it's young men, a tradition created by Napoleon Bonaparte. In Germany, all able bodied men between the ages of 17 and 45, were liable for military service. Some men working in professions considered more important than military service were exempt. During the War, some agricultural workers, heavy industrial workers, and munitions workers were also exempt.

The German Army had four classifications of military service Active, Reserve, Landwehr and Landsturm. At the age of 17, a man might be called up to serve in the Landsturm 1st Ban, a sort of National Guard for home defense. The British Army equivalent was the Territorial Force. In peacetime, it was mandatory to serve in the Army upon a man's 20th birthday. A 2 year period of Active service then began, or 3 years in the cavalry and field artillery. After that time, a man would be liable to serve the next 4 to 5 years in the Reserve, usually a 2 week training period each year. Serving in the Reserve during peacetime, was generally regarded as a vacation from home and work. After the Reserve period, a man was then liable to serve in the Landwehr for the next 11 years. The last stage was being liable for service for 7 years in the Landsturm 2nd Ban. After the age of 45, a man was then free from further military service. It was only in times of war that the Landwehr and Landsturm were expected to be called for duty.

After 1900, another measure was created, the Ersatz (Supplement or Reinforcement) Reserve. The Ersatz Reserve was made up of men fit for active duty, but excused for family or economic reasons, and for minor physical defects. These men were liable for Reserve service for 12 years, where they might be called up for 3 annual training sessions. In practice only a small number of these men underwent any training before 1914. Men unfit for war service were still liable for service in the Landsturm from the age of 17-45.

  • 3rd Infantry Division
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  • 10th Mixed Landwehr Brigade
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  • 25th Mixed Landwehr Brigade
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  • 4 Mortar Battalions
  • 10-cm Gun Battalion
  • 2 Heavy Coastal Mortar Batteries
  • 2 Pionier Regiments
  • 22nd Infantry Division
  • 38th Infantry Division
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  • 32nd Infantry Division
  • 24th Infantry Division
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  • 23rd Reserve Division
  • 24th Reserve Division
  • 47th Mixed Landwehr Brigade
  • Mortar Battalion
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  • 9th Bavarian Mixed Landwehr Brigade
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  • 4 Mortar Battalions
  • 2 Pionier Regiments
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  • 1st Bavarian Reserve Division
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  • Guards Ersatz Division
  • 4th Ersatz Division
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  • 3 Mortar Battalions
  • Heavy Coastal Mortar Battery
  • Heavy Coastal Gun Battery
  • 2 Pionier Regiments
  • 28th Infantry Division
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  • Bavarian Ersatz Division
  • 60th Mixed Landwehr Brigade
  • Upper Rhine Fortifications
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  • 17th Landwehr Infantry Brigade
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  • 4th Landwehr Division (Senior Landwehr Commander 4)
  • 22nd Landwehr Infantry Brigade
  • 23rd Landwehr Infantry Brigade
  • 2nd Mixed Landwehr Brigade
  • 6th Mixed Landwehr Brigade
  • 70th Mixed Landwehr Brigade
  • 17th Reserve Division
  • 18th Reserve Division
  • 1st Landwehr Division (Senior Landwehr Commander 1)
    • 33rd Mixed Landwehr Brigade
    • 34th Mixed Landwehr Brigade
    • 37th Mixed Landwehr Brigade
    • 38th Mixed Landwehr Brigade
    • 8th Bavarian Infantry Brigade
    • 66th Reserve Infantry Brigade
    • Reserve Infantry Regiment Metz
    • 5th Landwehr Infantry Brigade
    • 20th Landwehr Infantry Brigade
    • 9th Landwehr Infantry Brigade Königsberg
    • Ersatz Infantry Brigade Königsberg
    • 17th Reserve Infantry Division
    • 18th Reserve Infantry Division
    • 1st Landwehr Division
    • 1st Reserve Infantry Division
    • 3rd Reserve Infantry Division
    • 1st Cavalry Division
    • 1st Bavarian Cavalry Brigade
      • 1st Heavy Reiter Regiment
      • 1st Bavarian Uhlan Regiment
      • 2nd Bavarian Uhlan Regiment
      • 1st Bavarian Light Cavalry Regiment
      • 6th Bavarian Light Cavalry Regiment
      • Pioneer Detachment
      • 1st Bavarian Machine Gun Battery
      • 300 Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
      • 3rd Bavarian Reserve Brigade
        • 4th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
        • 15th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
        • 28th Ersatz Regiment
        • 120th Landwehr Regiment
        • 1st Ersatz Abteil Field Artillery Regiment - 1st Bavarian Cavalry Division
        • 2nd Ersatz Battery 8th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
        • 3rd Bavarian Reserve Brigade
          • 4th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
          • 15th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
          • 28th Ersatz Regiment
          • 81st Landwehr Regiment
          • 2nd Landwehr Pioneer Company - 2nd Bavarian Cavalry Division
          • 3rd Landwehr Pioneer Company - 3rd Bavarian Cavalry Division
          • 1st Bavarian Mining Company
          • 1st Bavarian Heavy Trench Mortar Detachment
          • 4th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
          • 15th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
          • 28th Ersatz Regiment
          • 1st Squadron, 6th Bavarian Reserve Schutzen Cavalry Regiment
          • Ersatz Cavalry Abteil, 1st Bavarian Cavalry Division.
          • Pioneer Battalion: 4th and 6th Bavarian Landwehr Pioneer Companies.
          • 1st Bavarian Mining Company
          • 100 Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
          • 5th Bavarian Reserve Searchlight Section
          • 551 Telephone Detachment
          • 9th Bavarian Ambulance Company
          • 40th Bavarian Field Hospital
          • 41st Bavarian Field Hospital
          • 33rd Bavarian Veterinary Hospital
          • 4th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
          • 15th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
          • 18th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
          • 13th Pioneer Battalion: 4th and 6th Bavarian Landwehr Pioneer Companies.
          • 1st Bavarian Mining Company
          • 100 Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
          • 5th Bavarian Reserve Searchlight Section
          • 551 Bavarian Telephone Detachment
          • 9th Bavarian Ambulance Company
          • 40th Bavarian Field Hospital
          • 41st Bavarian Field Hospital
          • 33rd Bavarian Veterinary Hospital
          • 1st Guards Reserve Brigade
            • 1st Guards Reserve Regiment
            • 2nd Guards Reserve Regiment
            • 64th Reserve Regiment
            • 93rd Reserve Regiment
            • 1st Guards Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
            • 3rd Guards Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
            • 1st Guards Reserve Brigade
              • 1st Guards Reserve Regiment
              • 2nd Guards Reserve Regiment
              • 64th Reserve Regiment
              • 93rd Reserve Regiment
              • 1st Guards Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
              • 3rd Guards Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
                1st Engineers Battalion
                • 2nd Field Company
                • 3rd Field Company
                • 28th Pioneer Company
                • 1st Guards Reserve Pontoon Engineers
                • 1st Guards Reserve Telephone Detachment
                • 1st Guards Reserve Brigade
                  • 1st Guards Reserve Regiment
                  • 2nd Guards Reserve Regiment
                  • 64th Reserve Regiment
                  • 1st Guards Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
                  • 3rd Guards Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
                    1st Engineers Battalion
                    • 2nd Field Company
                    • 3rd Field Company
                    • 28th Pioneer Company
                    • 1st Guards Reserve Pontoon Engineers
                    • 1st Guards Reserve Telephone Detachment
                    • 5th Guards Trench Mortar Company
                    • 1st Guards Reserve Brigade
                      • 1st Guards Reserve Regiment
                      • 2nd Guards Reserve Regiment
                      • 64th Reserve Regiment
                      • 7th Guards Artillery Command
                      • 1st Guards Reserve Field Artillery Regiment (9 Batteries)
                        1st Engineers Battalion
                        • 2nd Field Company
                        • 3rd Field Company
                        • 28th Pioneer Company
                        • 401 Guards Telephone Detachment
                        • 5th Guards Trench Mortar Company
                        • 266 Ambulance Company
                        • 395 Field Hospital
                        • Veterinary Hospital
                        • The Guard Ersatz Division fought in the opening phases of the war in the Battle of the Frontiers and then participated in the Race to the Sea.
                        • In 1916, the division fought in the Battle of Verdun.
                        • In 1917, the division participated in the Second Battle of the Aisne.
                        • In July 1917, the division was sent to the Eastern Front, where it fought in the Baltic region. It returned to the Western Front in September 1917 near Verdun and remained on the Western Front until the Armistice.
                        • 1st Mixed Guard Ersatz Brigade
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 1
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 2
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 3
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 4
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 5
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 6
                          • Guard Cavalry Ersatz Abteilung Berlin
                          • 1st Guard Field Artillery Ersatz Abteilung
                          • 2nd Guard Field Artillery Ersatz Abteilung
                          • 1st Ersatz Company Guard Pioneer Battalion
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 5
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 6
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 7
                          • Guard Brigade Ersatz Battalion number 8
                          • Cavalry Ersatz Abteilung Pasewalk - 2 Army Corps
                          • Forward Pomeranian Field Artillery Ersatz Abteilung 38
                          • Rear Pomeranian Field Artillery Ersatz Abteilung 53
                          • 1st Ersatz Company Guard Pioneer Battalion 2
                          • 6th Guard Regiment
                          • 7th Guard Regiment
                          • 399th Infantry Regiment
                          • Machine Gun Abteilung 29
                          • 5th Squadron 2nd Guard Uhlan Regiment
                          • Guard Artillery Command 6
                          • 7th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                          • 89th Foot Artillery Battalion
                          • 501 Stab Pioneer Battalion
                          • 301 Guard Pioneer Company
                          • 302 Guard Pioneer Company
                          • 7th Guard Trench Company
                          • 551 Guard Division Communications Command
                          • 1st Guards Cavalry Brigade
                            • Gardes du Corps
                            • Guards Cuirassiers
                            • 1st Guards Uhlans
                            • 3rd Guards Uhlans
                            • 1st Guards Dragoons "Queen of Great Britain and Ireland"
                            • 2nd Guards Dragoons "Empress Alexandra of Russia"
                            • Life Guards Hussars
                            • 2nd Guards Uhlans
                            • 1st Guards Cavalry Brigade became independent on 9 April 1917
                            • 2nd Guards Cavalry Brigade became independent on 6 June 1916
                            • 3rd Guards Cavalry Brigade became independent on 18 October 1916
                            • 19th Cavalry Brigade joined from 9th Cavalry Division on 8 April 1917 and became independent on 12 February 1918
                            • 11th Cavalry Brigade joined from 5th Cavalry Division on 23 March 1918 and was renamed 11th Cavalry Schützen Command on 8 May 1918
                            • 14th Cavalry Brigade joined from 9th Cavalry Division on 23 February 1918 and was renamed 14th Cavalry Schützen Command on 8 May 1918
                            • 38th Cavalry Brigade joined from 8th Cavalry Division on 20 April 1918 and renamed 38th Cavalry Schützen Command on 8 May 1918
                            • 5th Landwehr Brigade
                              • 11th Cavalry Schützen Command
                                • Guards Cuirassiers
                                • 1st (Silesian) Life Cuirassiers "Great Elector"
                                • 8th (2nd Silesian) Dragoons "King Frederick III"
                                • 4th (1st Silesian) Hussars "von Schill"
                                • 11th (2nd Westphalian) Hussars
                                • 5th (Westphalian) Uhlans
                                • 4th (Westphalian) Cuirassiers "von Driesen"
                                • 2nd Jäger zu Pferde
                                • 6th Jäger zu Pferde
                                • 1st Guard MG Detachment
                                • 1st Squadron, 5th Jäger zu Pferde (mounted cavalry)
                                • 132nd Artillery Command 3rd Guards Field Artillery
                                • 722nd Light Ammunition Column
                                • 852nd Light Ammunition Column
                                • 1135th Light Ammunition Column
                                • 412th Pioneer Battalion 2nd Ersatz Company, 18th Pioneer Battalion
                                • 307th Pioneer Company
                                • 226th Signal Command
                                • 226th Telephone Detachment
                                • 183rd Wireless Detachment
                                • 257th Ambulance Company
                                • 642nd Ambulance Company
                                • 1st Field Hospital
                                • 302nd Field Hospital
                                • 262nd Veterinary Hospital
                                • Stab 4th Dragoon Regiment - von Bredow (1st Schlesisches)
                                • Guards Reserve Jäger Battalion
                                • Guards Reserve Schützen Battalion
                                • Stab 2nd Uhlen Regiment - von Katzler (Schlesisches)
                                • 1st Reserve Jäger Battalion
                                • 2nd Pomeranian Jäger Battalion (Fürst Bismarck)
                                • Stab 8th Royal Bavarian Chevalliers Regiment
                                • 8th Reserve Jäger Battalion
                                • Wurttemberg Mountain Battalion
                                • Brandenberg Jäger Battalion
                                • Jäger-Regiment Nr. 11
                                  • The Regiment was formed in October 1917 on the Italian front.
                                  • The regimental staff was the staff of the Dragoner Nr. 4
                                  • Garde Reserve Jäger Bataillon,
                                  • Garde Reserve Schützen Bataillon,
                                  • Jäger Bataillon Nr. 1
                                  • The Regiment was part of the Deutsche Jäger Division, the commander was Oberstleutnant Freiherr von Bettendorf
                                  • The Regiment was formed in October 1917 on the Italian front.
                                  • The regimental staff was the staff of the Ulanen Regiment Nr. 2
                                  • Jäger-Bataillon Nr. 2,
                                  • Reserve Jäger Bataillon Nr. 1,
                                  • Jäger Bataillon Nr. 12 (from 1.12.1917)
                                  • The Regiment was part of the Deutsche Jäger Division, the commander was Oberstleutnant von Pappritz of the Ulanen Regiment Nr. 2
                                  • The Regiment was formed in October 1917 on the Italian front.
                                  • The regimental staff was the staff of the 8. Bayerische Chevauleger-Regiment
                                  • Reserve Jäger Bataillon Nr. 8,
                                  • Reserve Jäger Bataillon Nr. 20,
                                  • Reserve Jäger Bataillon Nr. 21
                                  • The Regiment was part of the Deutsche Jäger Division, the commander was Oberstleutnant von Bibra of the 8, Bayerische Chevauleger-Regiment
                                  • 24th Holstein Field Artillery Regiment
                                  • 4th Bavarian Foot Artillery Regiment
                                  • Oberst Georg von Wodtke - 14th Sep to 23rd Nov. 1917
                                  • Generalmajor Johannes von Dassel - 24th Nov 1917 to 14th Dec 1918.
                                  • 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps
                                    • 187th Division
                                    • 26th Reserve Division
                                    • 10th Ersatz Division
                                    • 208th Division
                                    • 234th Division
                                    • 25th Division
                                    • 220th Division
                                    • 35th Division
                                    • 6th Division
                                    • 214th Division
                                    • 111th Division
                                    • 48th Reserve Division
                                    • 206th Division
                                    • 12th Division
                                    • 28th Reserve Division
                                    • 1st Bavarian Corps
                                      • 19th Reserve Division
                                      • 29th Division
                                      • 15th Reserve Division
                                      • 200th Division
                                      • 204th Division
                                      • 34th Division
                                      • 75th Reserve Division
                                      • 9th Division
                                      • 18th Division
                                      • 6th Bavarian Division
                                      • 231st Division
                                      • 238th Division
                                      • 81st Reserve Division
                                      • 2nd Division
                                      • 1st Reserve Division
                                      • 82nd Reserve Division (two-thirds)
                                      • 5th Reserve Division
                                      • 232nd Division
                                      • 237th Division
                                      • 11th Division
                                      • 221st Division
                                      • 105th Division
                                      • 87th Division
                                        5th Ersatz Division
                                      • 19th German Army Corps
                                        • 84th Landwehr Brigade
                                        • 48th Landwehr Division
                                        • 2nd Bavarian Landwehr Division
                                        • 19th Ersatz Division
                                        • 17th Reserve Division
                                        • 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division
                                        • 83rd Division
                                        • 59th German Army Corps (zbV)
                                          • 96th Division
                                          • 21st Landwehr Division
                                          • 75th Reserve Division
                                          • 82nd Composite Reserve Infantry Brigade
                                          • 301st Division
                                          • 39th Bavarian Reserve Division
                                          • 61st Landwehr Division
                                          • 37th Austro-Hungarian Division
                                          • 4th Landwehr Division
                                          • 64th German Army Corps (zbV)
                                            • 6th Bavarian Landwehr Division
                                            • 4th Cavalry Schützen Division
                                            • 7th Cavalry Schützen Division
                                            • 26th Landwehr Division
                                            • 30th Bavarian Reserve Division
                                            • 31st Division
                                            • 44th Landwehr Division
                                            • 25th Landwehr Division
                                            • 13th German Army Corps
                                              • 5th Guards Division
                                              • 3rd Bavarian Division
                                              • 241st Division
                                              • 13th Landwehr Division
                                              • 94th Division
                                              • 35th Austro-Hungarian Division
                                              • 5th Landwehr Division
                                              • 224th Division
                                              • 8th Landwehr Division
                                              • 255th Division
                                              • 31st Landwehr Brigade
                                              • 10th Division
                                              • 18th Landwehr Division
                                              • 2nd Landwehr Division
                                              • 45th Reserve Division
                                              • 1st Naval Division
                                              • 2nd Naval Division
                                              • 38th Landwehr Division (two-thirds)
                                              • 3rd Division (one-third)
                                              • 85th Landwehr Division
                                              • 33rd Division
                                              • 32nd Division
                                              • 106th Austro-Hungarian Division (less elements)
                                              • 37th Division
                                              • 236th Division
                                              • 20th Division
                                              • 38th Division
                                              • 12th Bavarian Division
                                              • 5th Bavarian Division
                                              • 4th Ersatz Division (two-thirds)
                                              • 9th Reserve Division
                                              • 2nd Cyclist Brigade
                                              • 243rd Division
                                              • 121st Division
                                              • 54th Division
                                              • 1st Guards Reserve Division
                                              • 22nd Reserve Division
                                              • 21st Reserve Division
                                              • 22nd Division
                                              • 4th Division
                                              • 113th Division
                                              • 239th Division
                                              • 12th Reserve Division
                                              • Jäger Division
                                              • 185th Division
                                              • 31st Landwehr Division
                                              • 10th Division
                                              • 18th Landwehr Division
                                              • 2nd Landwehr Division
                                              • 6th Bavarian Landwehr Division
                                              • 4th Cavalry Schützen Division
                                              • 7th Cavalry Schützen Division
                                              • 26th Landwehr Division
                                              • 9th Landwehr Division
                                              • 199th Division
                                              • 3rd Guards Division
                                              • 1st Guards Division
                                              • 75th Reserve Division
                                              • 9th Division
                                              • 18th Division
                                              • 6th Bavarian Division

                                              Corps structure 38th German Army Reserve Corps part of 3rd German Army

                                              No divisions assigned in 1918.

                                              • 1st Infantry Brigade
                                                • 1st Grenadiers Regiment
                                                • 41st Regiment
                                                • 3rd Grenadiers Regiment
                                                • 43rd Regiment
                                                • 16th Field Artillery Regiment
                                                • 52nd Field Artillery Regiment
                                                • 1st Infantry Brigade
                                                  • 1st Grenadiers Regiment
                                                  • 41st Regiment
                                                  • 3rd Grenadiers Regiment
                                                  • 43rd Regiment
                                                  • 16th Field Artillery Regiment
                                                  • 52nd Field Artillery Regiment
                                                  • 1st Engineers Battalion (1st Command District)
                                                  • 1st Pioneers Field Company
                                                  • 1st Pontoon Engineers
                                                  • 1st Telephone Detachment
                                                  • 1st Infantry Brigade
                                                    • 1st Grenadiers Regiment
                                                    • 41st Regiment
                                                    • 3rd Grenadiers Regiment
                                                    • 43rd Regiment
                                                    • 16th Field Artillery Regiment
                                                    • 52nd Field Artillery Regiment
                                                    • 1st Engineers Battalion (1st Command District)
                                                    • 1st Pioneers 3rd Field Company
                                                    • 1st Pontoon Engineers
                                                    • 1st Telephone Detachment
                                                    • 1st Trench Mortar Company
                                                    • 271st Pioneer Company
                                                    • 1st Infantry Brigade
                                                      • 1st Grenadiers Regiment
                                                      • 3rd Grenadiers Regiment
                                                      • 43rd Regiment
                                                      • 16th Field Artillery Regiment
                                                      • 52nd Field Artillery Regiment
                                                      • 112th Engineers Battalion
                                                      • 1st Pioneers 3rd Field Company (z)
                                                      • 1st Telephone Detachment
                                                      • 1st Trench Mortar Company
                                                      • 271st Pioneer Company
                                                      • 305th Searchlight Section
                                                      • 311th Searchlight Section
                                                      • 312th Searchlight Section
                                                      • 392nd Searchlight Section
                                                      • 4th Ambulance Company
                                                      • Field Hospital
                                                      • 1st Veterinary Hospital
                                                      • 66th Machine Gun Sharpshooting Detachment
                                                      • 54th Light Machine Gun Section
                                                      • 55th Light Machine Gun Section
                                                      • 56th Light Machine Gun Section
                                                      • 57th Light Machine Gun Section
                                                      • 1st Infantry Brigade
                                                        • 1st Grenadiers Regiment
                                                        • 3rd Grenadiers Regiment
                                                        • 43rd Regiment
                                                        • 16th Field Artillery Regiment
                                                        • 10th Field Artillery Regiment - 1st Abteilung (Staff, 1, 3 and 4 Batteries)
                                                        • 1083 Light Ammunition Column
                                                        • 1095 Light Ammunition Column
                                                        • 1096 Light Ammunition Column
                                                        • 110th Pioneer Battalion
                                                        • 1st Pioneers 3rd Field Company (z)
                                                        • 1st Trench Mortar Company
                                                        • 271st Pioneer Company
                                                        • 108th Searchlight Section
                                                        • 1st Signal Command
                                                        • 1st Telephone Detachment
                                                        • 43rd Wireless Detachment
                                                        • 4th Ambulance Company
                                                        • 13th Field Hospital
                                                        • 16th Field Hospital
                                                        • 1st Veterinary Hospital
                                                        • From the 11th January 1915 General der Infanterie Alexander von Linsingen, previously II Corps and later moved to Army of the Bug (8th July 1915).
                                                        • From the 8th July 1915 General der Infanterie Felix Graf von Bothmer, previously II Bavarian Reserve Corps and later moved to 19th Army (25th January 1918).
                                                        • 1st Reserve Brigade
                                                          • 1st Reserve Regiment
                                                          • 3rd Reserve Regiment
                                                          • 18th Reserve Regiment
                                                          • 59th Reserve Regiment
                                                          • 1st Reserve Uhlan Regiment (3 Squadrons)
                                                          • 1st Reserve Ersatz Cavalry Regiment (3 Squadrons)
                                                          • 1st Reserve Brigade
                                                            • 1st Reserve Regiment
                                                            • 3rd Reserve Regiment
                                                            • 18th Reserve Regiment
                                                            • 59th Reserve Regiment
                                                            • 1st Reserve Uhlan Regiment (3 Squadrons)
                                                            • 1st Reserve Ersatz Cavalry Regiment (3 Squadrons)
                                                            • 2nd Engineers Battalion No. 1
                                                            • 1st Reserve Company Pioneers Battalion
                                                            • 1st Reserve Pontoon Engineers
                                                            • 1st Reserve Telephone Detachment
                                                            • 1st Reserve Brigade
                                                              • 1st Reserve Regiment
                                                              • 3rd Reserve Regiment
                                                              • 18th Reserve Regiment
                                                              • 59th Reserve Regiment
                                                              • 1st Reserve Uhlan Regiment
                                                              • 4th Field Company, 2nd Pioneers Battalion.
                                                              • 204th Trench Mortar Company
                                                              • 1st Reserve Pontoon Engineers
                                                              • 1st Reserve Telephone Detachment
                                                              • 1st Reserve Brigade
                                                                • 1st Reserve Regiment
                                                                • 3rd Reserve Regiment
                                                                • 59th Reserve Regiment
                                                                • 1st Reserve Uhlan Regiment (3 Squadrons)
                                                                • 4th Field Company, 2nd Pioneers Battalion.
                                                                • 1st Field Company, 2nd Pioneers Battalion.
                                                                • 301st Engineering Battalion
                                                                • 201st Trench Mortar Company
                                                                • 348 Searchlight Section
                                                                • 1st Reserve Telephone Detachment
                                                                • 501st Ambulance Company
                                                                • 399th Field Hospital
                                                                • 9th Reserve Field Hospital
                                                                • Veterinary Hospital
                                                                • 1st Reserve Brigade
                                                                  • 1st Reserve Regiment
                                                                  • 3rd Reserve Regiment
                                                                  • 59th Reserve Regiment
                                                                  • 4th Squadron, 2nd Guards Uhlan Regiment
                                                                  • 1st Reserve Field Artillery Regiment (9 Batteries)
                                                                  • 2nd Abteilung 1st Reserve Foot Artillery Regiment
                                                                  • 1363 Light Ammunition Column
                                                                  • 1390 Light Ammunition Column
                                                                  • 1393 Light Ammunition Column
                                                                  • 4th Field Company, 2nd Pioneers Battalion.
                                                                  • 1st Field Company, 34th Reserve Pioneers Battalion.
                                                                  • 301st Engineering Battalion
                                                                  • 201st Trench Mortar Company
                                                                  • 31st Searchlight Section
                                                                  • 401st Signals Command
                                                                  • 401st Telephone Detachment
                                                                  • 158th Wireless Detachment
                                                                  • 501st Ambulance Company
                                                                  • 399th Field Hospital
                                                                  • 9th Reserve Field Hospital
                                                                  • 137th Veterinary Hospital

                                                                  Divisional History 1st Reserve Division part of 1st German Army Reserve Corps and 8th German Army

                                                                  The 1st Reserve Division (1. Reserve-Division) was a reserve infantry division of the Imperial German Army in World War I. It was formed, on mobilization in August 1914, from reserve infantry units, primarily from East Prussia and was part of I Reserve Corps. The division served on the Eastern Front from the beginning of the war until October 1917, after which it was transferred to the Western Front for the wars final campaigns. It was rated a third class division by Allied intelligence, mainly due to its losses in heavy fighting and reduced quality of replacement troops.

                                                                  1st Reserve Division (1. Reserve-Division)

                                                                  Active from 1914 to 1919

                                                                  Division Size Approx. 15,000

                                                                  World War I - Main activities: Gumbinnen, Tannenberg, 1st Masurian Lakes, Lodz, Spring Offensive, Hundred Days Offensive.

                                                                  Late World War I organization

                                                                  German Divisions underwent many changes during the war, with regiments moving from division to division, and some being destroyed and rebuilt. During the war, most divisions became triangular - one infantry brigade with three infantry regiments rather than two infantry brigades of two regiments (a square division). The 1st Reserve Division triangulated in June 1917. An artillery commander replaced the artillery brigade headquarters, the cavalry was further reduced, the engineer contingent was increased and a divisional signals command was created.

                                                                  • 33rd Mixed Landwehr Brigade
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 75
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 76
                                                                    • 2nd Guard Landwehr Squadron
                                                                    • 1st Landwehr Squadron/IX Corps
                                                                    • 1st Landwehr Battery/IX Corps
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 31
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 84
                                                                    • 3rd Guard Landwehr Squadron
                                                                    • 2nd Landwehr Squadron/IX Corps
                                                                    • 2nd Landwehr Battery/IX Corps
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 73
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 74
                                                                    • 2nd Landwehr Squadron/X Corps
                                                                    • 2nd Landwehr Field Artillery Battalion/X Corps
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 77
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 78
                                                                    • 3rd Landwehr Squadron/X Corps
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 31
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 33
                                                                    • Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 84
                                                                    • 3rd Squadron, Light Cavalry Regiment No. 12
                                                                    • Artillery Command 128
                                                                    • Field Artillery Regiment No. 96
                                                                    • Pioneer Battalion No. 401
                                                                    • 1st Ersatz Company, Pioneer Battalion 'Prinz Radziwill' (East Prussian) No. 1
                                                                    • 2nd Landwehr Pioneer Company/II Corps
                                                                    • Trench Mortar Company No. 301
                                                                    • Divisional Signals Command 501
                                                                    • Armee-Gruppe Gronau (formerly XXXXI Reserve Corps) 20 September 1915, 18 September 1916 (then raised to the status of an Armee-Abteilung)
                                                                    • Armee-Gruppe Marwitz (formerly VI Corps) 15 June 1916, 22 August 1917
                                                                    • Armee-Gruppe Litzmann (formerly XXXX Reserve Corps) 28 July 1916, 28 January 1918
                                                                    • 1st Bavarian Brigade
                                                                      • Body Infantry Regiment
                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Regiment
                                                                      • 2nd Bavarian Regiment
                                                                      • 16th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Artillery Brigade
                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                      • 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Engineers Battalion - 1st Field Company
                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Engineers Battalion - 3rd Field Company
                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Brigade
                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Regiment
                                                                        • 2nd Bavarian Regiment
                                                                        • 24th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Artillery Brigade
                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                        • 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Engineers Battalion - 1st Field Company
                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Engineers Battalion - 3rd Field Company
                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Pontoon Engineers
                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                        • 2nd Bavarian Brigade
                                                                          • 1st Bavarian Regiment
                                                                          • 2nd Bavarian Regiment
                                                                          • 24th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                          • 1st Bavarian Artillery Brigade
                                                                          • 1st Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                          • 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                          • 1st Bavarian Engineers Battalion - 1st Field Company
                                                                          • 1st Bavarian Engineers Battalion - 3rd Field Company
                                                                          • 1st Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                          • 1st Bavarian Pontoon Engineers
                                                                          • 1st Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                          • 2nd Bavarian Brigade
                                                                            • 1st Bavarian Regiment
                                                                            • 2nd Bavarian Regiment
                                                                            • 24th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                            • 8th Bavarian Light Cavalry - 2nd Squadron
                                                                            • 8th Bavarian Light Cavalry - 3rd Squadron
                                                                            • 1st Bavarian Artillery Command
                                                                            • 1st Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                            • 1st Bavarian Pioneers Company
                                                                            • 3rd Bavarian Pioneers Company
                                                                            • 1st Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                            • 1st Bavarian Pontoon Engineers
                                                                            • 1st Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                            • 1st Bavarian Searchlight Section
                                                                            • 1st Bavarian Ambulance Company
                                                                            • Field Hospital
                                                                            • Veterinary Hospital
                                                                            • 2nd Bavarian Brigade
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Regiment
                                                                              • 2nd Bavarian Regiment
                                                                              • 24th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                              • 8th Bavarian Light Cavalry - 2nd Squadron
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Artillery Command
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                              • 9th Bavarian Foot Artillery Regiment
                                                                              • 123rd Bavarian Light Ammunition Column
                                                                              • 146th Bavarian Light Ammunition Column
                                                                              • 158th Bavarian Light Ammunition Column
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Pioneers Battalion
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Pioneers Company
                                                                              • 3rd Bavarian Pioneers Company
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Signal Command
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                              • 40th Wireless Detachment
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Searchlight Section
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Ambulance Company
                                                                              • 3rd Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                              • 4th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                              • 1st Bavarian Reserve Brigade
                                                                                • 1st Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                • 2nd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                • 3rd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                • 12th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                • 1st Bavarian Reserve Brigade
                                                                                  • 1st Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                  • 2nd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                  • 3rd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                  • 12th Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                  • 1st Bavarian Reserve Engineering Battalion
                                                                                  • 1st Bavarian Reserve Telephone Detachment
                                                                                  • 1st Bavarian Reserve Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                  • 1st Bavarian Reserve Brigade
                                                                                    • 1st Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                    • 2nd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                    • 3rd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                    • 2nd Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
                                                                                    • 4th Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
                                                                                    • 201st Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                    • 1st Bavarian Reserve Telephone Detachment
                                                                                    • 1st Bavarian Reserve Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                    • 1st Bavarian Reserve Brigade
                                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                      • 2nd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                      • 3rd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                      • 13th Bavarian Artillery Command
                                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                      • 17th Bavarian Engineering Battalion
                                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
                                                                                      • 3rd Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
                                                                                      • 17th Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
                                                                                      • 201st Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                      • 401st Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Reserve Searchlight Section
                                                                                      • 15th Bavarian Ambulance Company
                                                                                      • 45th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                      • 48th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                      • 49th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                      • Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                      • 1st Bavarian Reserve Brigade
                                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                        • 2nd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                        • 3rd Bavarian Reserve Regiment
                                                                                        • 13th Bavarian Artillery Command
                                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • 1st Abteilung, 1st Bavarian Foot Artillery Regiment (Staff, 1,2 and 4 Batteries)
                                                                                        • 101st Bavarian Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                        • 145th Bavarian Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                        • 147th Bavarian Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                        • 17th Bavarian Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                        • 1st Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
                                                                                        • 17th Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
                                                                                        • 201st Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                        • 18th Bavarian Reserve Searchlight Section
                                                                                        • 401st Bavarian Signals Command
                                                                                        • 401st Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                                        • 106th Bavarian Wireless Detachment
                                                                                        • 15th Bavarian Ambulance Company
                                                                                        • 45th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                        • 48th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                        • 13th Bavarian Landwehr Infantry Brigade
                                                                                          • 8th Royal Bavarian Landwehr Infantry Regiment
                                                                                          • 10th Royal Bavarian Landwehr Infantry Regiment
                                                                                          • 15th Royal Bavarian Landwehr Infantry Regiment
                                                                                          • 122nd Royal Wurttemberg Landwehr Infantry Regiment
                                                                                          • 60th Landwehr Infantry Regiment
                                                                                          • 71st Thuringen Landwehr Infantry Regiment
                                                                                          • Cavalry Ersatz Abteilung -2nd Guards Uhlan Regiment
                                                                                          • 1st Landwehr Squadron - 2nd Bavarian Army Corps
                                                                                          • 2nd Ersatz Abteilung 22nd Westphalian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                          • 1st Ersatz Abteilung 84th Strassburg Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                          • Landau Battery Royal Bavarian Landsturm
                                                                                          • 5th Bavarian Landwehr Infantry Brigade
                                                                                            • 4th Royal Bavarian Landwehr Infantry Regiment
                                                                                            • 6th Royal Bavarian Landwehr Infantry Regiment
                                                                                            • 7th Royal Bavarian Landwehr Infantry Regiment
                                                                                            • 6th Machinegun Sharpshooter Abteilung
                                                                                            • 22nd Royal Bavarian Artillery Command
                                                                                            • 1st Royal Bavarian Landwehr Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                            • 24th Royal Bavarian Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                            • 1st Royal Bavarian Landwehr Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 18th Royal Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 301st Royal Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                            • 501st Royal Bavarian Communications Command
                                                                                              1st Naval Brigade 2nd Naval Brigade
                                                                                            • 1st Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 5th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 6th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Infantry Regiment
                                                                                            • 1st Landwehr Field Artillery Detachment, 10th Command District
                                                                                            • 2nd Landwehr Field Artillery Detachment, 10th Command District
                                                                                              1st Naval Brigade 2nd Naval Brigade
                                                                                          • 1st Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                          • 2nd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                          • 3rd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                          • 4th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                          • 5th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                          • 6th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                          • 4th Marine Infantry Regiment
                                                                                          • 1st Naval Artillery Brigade
                                                                                          • 1st Naval Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                          • 2nd Naval Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                          • Torpedo-Matrosen Artillery Regiment
                                                                                            1st Naval Brigade 2nd Naval Brigade
                                                                                        • 1st Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 2nd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 3rd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 4th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 5th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 6th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 4th Marine Infantry Regiment
                                                                                        • 1st Naval Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • 2nd Naval Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • 3rd Naval Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • Torpedo-Matrosen Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • 1st Naval Pioneer Company
                                                                                        • 2nd Naval Pioneer Company
                                                                                        • 165th Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                        • 1st Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 2nd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 3rd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 4th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 5th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 6th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 4th Marine Infantry Regiment
                                                                                        • 258th Landwehr Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • Torpedo-Matrosen Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • 1st Naval Pioneer Company
                                                                                        • 2nd Naval Pioneer Company
                                                                                        • 337th Pioneer Company
                                                                                        • 165th Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                        • Telephone Detachment
                                                                                        • Ambulance Company
                                                                                        • 1st Naval Field Hospital
                                                                                        • Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                        • 1st Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 2nd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • 6th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                        • Marine Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • 1st Matrosen Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • Marine Corps 1st Foot Artillery Ammunition Column
                                                                                        • 2nd Light Ammunition Column of Marine Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                        • 1st Marine Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                        • 1st Marine Pioneer Company
                                                                                        • 4th Marine Pioneer Company
                                                                                        • 1st Entrenching Company
                                                                                        • 2nd Entrenching Company
                                                                                        • 291st Marine Signal Command
                                                                                        • 291st Marine Telephone Detachment
                                                                                        • 291st Marine Wireless Detachment
                                                                                        • 1st Marine Ambulance Company
                                                                                        • 1st Marine Field Hospital
                                                                                        • Veterinary Hospital (Ostend)
                                                                                        • 1st Section Flanders Reconnaissance Flight
                                                                                        • 2nd Section Flanders Reconnaissance Flight
                                                                                        • 41st Cyclist Company
                                                                                        • 1st Cavalry Brigade (from 1st Corps District)
                                                                                          • 3rd (East Prussian) Cuirassiers (Count Wrangel)
                                                                                          • 1st (Lithuanian) Dragoons (Prince Albrecht of Prussia)
                                                                                          • 12th (Lithuanian) Uhlans
                                                                                          • 9th Jäger zu Pferde
                                                                                          • 5th (West Prussian) Cuirassiers (Duke Frederick Eugene of Württemberg)
                                                                                          • 4th (1st Pommeranian) Uhlans (von Schmidt)
                                                                                          • 5th Machine Gun Detachment
                                                                                          • Pioneer Detachment
                                                                                          • Signals Detachment
                                                                                          • 17th Heavy Wireless Station
                                                                                          • 7th Light Wireless Station
                                                                                          • 14th Light Wireless Station
                                                                                          • 2nd Cavalry Brigade (from 1st Corps District)
                                                                                            • 3rd (East Prussian) Cuirassiers (Count Wrangel)
                                                                                            • 1st (Lithuanian) Dragoons (Prince Albrecht of Prussia)
                                                                                            • 12th (Lithuanian) Uhlans
                                                                                            • Abteilung of the 1st (1st Lithuanian) Field Artillery (Prince August of Prussia)
                                                                                            • Abteilung of the 35th (1st West Prussian) Field Artillery
                                                                                            • 1st Pioneer Detachment
                                                                                            • 347th Searchlight Section
                                                                                              70th Ambulance Company 66th Veterinary Hospital 142nd Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                            • 152nd Cyclist Company
                                                                                            • 153rd Cyclist Company
                                                                                            • 159th Cyclist Company
                                                                                            • 3rd Naval Brigade
                                                                                            • 4th Naval Brigade
                                                                                            • 1st Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 5th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 6th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Infantry Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Naval Brigade
                                                                                            • 4th Naval Brigade
                                                                                            • 1st Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 5th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 6th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Infantry Regiment
                                                                                            • Marine Field Artillery A Battery
                                                                                            • 3rd Naval Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 3rd Naval Brigade
                                                                                            • 4th Naval Brigade
                                                                                            • 1st Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 5th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 6th Marine Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Infantry Regiment
                                                                                            • 1st Marine Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Naval Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 4th Naval Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 377th Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • Telephone Detachment
                                                                                            • Ambulance Company
                                                                                            • Field Hospital
                                                                                            • Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Regiment
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Regiment
                                                                                            • 5th Marine Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Artillery Regiment
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 3rd Entrenching Company
                                                                                            • 4th Entrenching Company
                                                                                            • 292nd Marine Signal Command
                                                                                            • 292nd Marine Telephone Detachment
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Ambulance Company
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Field Hospital
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Field Hospital
                                                                                            • Coast Defense Battalion
                                                                                            • 1st Marine Regiment
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Regiment
                                                                                            • 9th Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                            • 1st Company Marine Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                            • 2nd Company Marine Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                            • 337th Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 165th Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                            • 1st Marine Regiment
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Regiment
                                                                                            • 3rd Marine Regiment
                                                                                            • 2nd Matrosen Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                            • 925th Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                            • 1234th Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                            • 1292nd Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                            • 115th Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                            • 1st Reserve Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 4th Marine Pioneer Company
                                                                                            • 293rd Signal Command
                                                                                            • 293rd Telephone Detachment
                                                                                            • 68th Wireless Detachment
                                                                                            • 610th Ambulance Company
                                                                                            • 2nd Marine Field Hospital
                                                                                            • 390th Field Hospital
                                                                                            • 569 Veterinary Hospital (Ostend)
                                                                                            • Coast Defense Battalion
                                                                                            • 3rd Guard Brigade
                                                                                              • 1st Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                              • 2nd Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                              • 3rd Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                              • 4th Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                              • 5th Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                              • 5th Foot Regiment
                                                                                              • 2nd Guard Artillery Brigade
                                                                                              • 2nd Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                              • 4th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                              • 3rd Guard Brigade
                                                                                                • 1st Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                • 2nd Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                • 3rd Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                • 4th Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                • 4th Guards Brigade
                                                                                                • Body Guard Hussar Regiment
                                                                                                • 2nd Guard Uhlan Regiment
                                                                                                • 2nd Guard Artillery Brigade
                                                                                                • 2nd Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                • 4th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                • 1st Guard Engineers Battalion
                                                                                                • Field Company Guard Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                • 2nd Guard Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                                • 2nd Guard Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                • 3rd Guard Brigade
                                                                                                  • 1st Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                  • 2nd Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                  • 3rd Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                  • 4th Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                  • Cavalry Regiment Schlotheim
                                                                                                  • 2nd Squadron, 2nd Guard Uhlan Regiment
                                                                                                  • 5th Squadron, 2nd Guard Uhlan Regiment
                                                                                                  • 1st Squadron, 9th Dragoon Regiment
                                                                                                  • Ersatz Squadron, 2nd Uhlan Regiment
                                                                                                  • Ersatz Squadron, 1st Horse Jäger Regiment
                                                                                                  • 2nd Guard Artillery Brigade
                                                                                                  • 2nd Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                  • 4th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                  • 1st Guard Engineers Battalion
                                                                                                  • 2nd Company Guard Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                  • 1st Company 28th Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                  • 281st Pioneer Company
                                                                                                  • 2nd Guard Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                                  • 2nd Guard Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                  • 2nd Guard Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                  • 3rd Guard Brigade
                                                                                                    • 1st Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                    • 2nd Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                    • 4th Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                    • 1st Squadron, 9th Dragoon Regiment
                                                                                                    • 2nd Guard Artillery Command
                                                                                                    • 2nd Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                    • 102nd Engineers Battalion
                                                                                                    • 2nd Company Guard Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                    • 3rd Company Guard Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                    • 278th Searchlight Section
                                                                                                    • 281st Searchlight Section
                                                                                                    • 298th Searchlight Section
                                                                                                    • 2nd Guard Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                                    • 2nd Guard Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                    • 2nd Guard Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                    • 2nd Ambulance Company
                                                                                                    • 2nd Field Hospital
                                                                                                    • 3rd Field Hospital
                                                                                                    • 2nd Guard Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                                    • 2nd Machine Gun Sharpshooter Detachment
                                                                                                    • 1st Abteilung 43 Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                    • 3rd Abteilung 43 Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                    • 1st Abteilung 16th Foot Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                    • 2nd Abteilung 11th Reserve Foot Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                    • 10th Battery 13th Reserve Foot Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                    • 190th Foot Battery
                                                                                                    • 9th Battery 12th Reserve Foot Artillery Regiment with Transport
                                                                                                    • 1st Battery 57th Landwehr Foot Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                    • 3rd Company 87th Labour Battalion
                                                                                                    • 1133rd Wireless Detachment (from 27th Division)
                                                                                                    • 289th Pigeon Loft
                                                                                                    • 3rd Balloon Section
                                                                                                    • 327th Ammunition Train
                                                                                                    • 191st Motor Transport Column
                                                                                                    • 216th Motor Transport Column
                                                                                                    • 853rd Motor Transport Column
                                                                                                    • 865th Motor Transport Column
                                                                                                    • 188th Depot Supply Train
                                                                                                    • 3rd Guard Brigade
                                                                                                      • 1st Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                      • 2nd Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                      • 4th Grenardier Regiment
                                                                                                      • 1st Squadron, Body Guard Hussar Regiment
                                                                                                      • 2nd Guard Artillery Command
                                                                                                      • 2nd Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                      • 3rd Abteilung, 3rd Foot Artillery Regiment (Staff,10,11 and 12 Batteries)
                                                                                                      • 535th Foot Artillery Battery
                                                                                                      • 965th Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                                      • 1385th Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                                      • 1386th Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                                      • 102nd Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                      • 2nd Company Guard Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                      • 3rd Company Guard Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                      • 211th Searchlight Section
                                                                                                      • 2nd Guard Signal Command
                                                                                                      • 2nd Guard Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                      • 73rd Wireless Detachment
                                                                                                      • 2nd Ambulance Company
                                                                                                      • 2nd Field Hospital
                                                                                                      • 3rd Field Hospital
                                                                                                      • 2nd Guard Veterinary Hospital

                                                                                                      Divisional History 2nd Guards Reserve Division part of 10th German Army Reserve Corps and German 2nd Army

                                                                                                      Divisional History

                                                                                                      The 2nd Guards Reserve Division (2. Garde-Reserve-Division) was a reserve infantry division of the Imperial German Army in World War I. Despite its name, it was not a reserve formation of the Prussian Guards like the 1st Guards Reserve Division. Instead, other than the 55th Reserve Infantry Regiment, which was raised by the 4th Guards Grenadiers, it was primarily made up of non-Guards reservists from Westphalia and Hanover. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 as part of X Reserve Corps and dissolved in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after the Armistice.

                                                                                                      The division spent the entire war on the Western Front. It fought in the First Battle of the Marne in 1914, the Battle of the Somme in 1916, the Battles of Arras and Battle of Passchendaele in 1917, and occupied various parts of the front throughout the war. It participated in the 1918 German Spring Offensive. It was rated by Allied intelligence as a second class division.

                                                                                                      • 26th Reserve Infantry Brigade
                                                                                                        • 15th Westfälisches Reserve Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                        • 55th Westfälisches Reserve Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                        • 77th Hannoversches Reserve Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                        • 91st Hannoversches Reserve Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                        • 10th Hannoversches Reserve Jäger Battalion

                                                                                                        Divisional History 2nd German Cavalry Division part of 2nd Cavalry Corps which preceded 1st and 2nd German Armies.

                                                                                                        Divisional History

                                                                                                        The 2nd Cavalry Division (2. Kavallerie-Division) was a unit of the German Army in World War I. The division was formed on the mobilization of the German Army in August 1914. The division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I.

                                                                                                        It was initially assigned to II Cavalry Corps, which preceded the 1st and 2nd Armies on the Western Front. On 12 November 1914, it was transferred to Russia and then to Romania on 25 November 1916, returning to the West in December 1916. It served as a Frontier Guard on the Dutch border from 26 February 1917 to 10 September 1917 then it was again transferred to Russia and finally to the Ukraine in March 1918.

                                                                                                        • 5th Cavalry Brigade (from III Corps District)
                                                                                                          • 2nd (1st Brandenburg) Dragoons
                                                                                                          • 3rd (1st Brandenburg) Uhlans (Emperor Alexander II of Russia)
                                                                                                          • 7th (Magdeburg) Cuirassiers (von Seydlitz)
                                                                                                          • 12th (Thuringian) Hussars
                                                                                                          • 1st Life Hussars (Totenkopf)
                                                                                                          • 2nd Life Hussars (Queen Victoria of Prussia)
                                                                                                          • 4th Machine Gun Detachment
                                                                                                          • Pioneer Detachment
                                                                                                          • 1st Signals Detachment Heavy Wireless Station
                                                                                                          • 5th Light Wireless Station
                                                                                                          • 6th Light Wireless Station
                                                                                                          • Leib Hussar Brigade became independent on 20 August 1916
                                                                                                          • 5th Cavalry Brigade became independent on 8 August 1916
                                                                                                          • 8th Cavalry brigade was transferred to 1st Cavalry Division on 25 July 1916
                                                                                                          • 22nd Cavalry Brigade joined on 13 August 1916 from 3rd Cavalry Division
                                                                                                          • 25th Cavalry Brigade joined on 23 September 1916 also from 3rd Cavalry Division
                                                                                                          • 7th Bavarian Cavalry Brigade "Siebenburgische" joined (previously independent) and left again on 18 February 1918
                                                                                                          • 22nd Cavalry Brigade (11th Corps District)
                                                                                                            • 5th (Rhenish) Dragoons "Baron Manteuffel"
                                                                                                            • 14th (2nd Kurhessian) Hussars "Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Homburg"
                                                                                                            • 23rd Guards Dragoons (1st Grand Ducal Hessian)
                                                                                                            • 24th Life Dragoons (2nd Grand Ducal Hessian)
                                                                                                            • 4th Royal Bavarian Chevau-légers "King"
                                                                                                            • 5th Royal Bavarian Chevau-légers "Archduke Albrecht of Austria"
                                                                                                            • 2nd Pioneer Detachment
                                                                                                            • 7th Cavalry Pioneer Detachment
                                                                                                            • 200th Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                            • 2nd Machine Gun Detachment
                                                                                                            • 3rd Machine Gun Detachment
                                                                                                            • 4th Jager Battalion
                                                                                                            • 1st Cyclist Company, 3rd Jager Battalion
                                                                                                            • 2nd Cyclist Company, 3rd Jager Battalion
                                                                                                            • 3rd Infantry Brigade
                                                                                                              • 4th Grenadier Regiment
                                                                                                              • 44th Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                              • 33rd Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                                              • 45th Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                              • 1st Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                              • 37th Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                              • 3rd Infantry Brigade
                                                                                                                • 4th Grenadier Regiment
                                                                                                                • 44th Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                                • 33rd Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                                                • 45th Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                                • 1st Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                • 37th Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                • 1st Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                • 1st Field Company Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                • 2nd Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                                                • 2nd Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                • 3rd Infantry Brigade
                                                                                                                  • 4th Grenadier Regiment
                                                                                                                  • 44th Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                                  • 33rd Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                                                  • 3rd Landsturm Regiment
                                                                                                                  • 1st Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                  • 37th Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                  • 1st Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                  • 2nd Field Company Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                  • 2nd Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                  • 2nd Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                                                  • 2nd Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                  • 3rd Infantry Brigade
                                                                                                                    • 4th Grenadier Regiment
                                                                                                                    • 44th Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                                    • 33rd Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                                                    • 1st Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                    • 1st Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                    • 2nd Company Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                    • 4th Company Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                    • 2nd Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                    • 2nd Searchlight Section
                                                                                                                    • 2nd Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                    • 5th Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                    • 11th Field Hospital
                                                                                                                    • 12th Field Hospital
                                                                                                                    • 195th Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                                                    • 150th Bavarian Anti-Aircraft Section
                                                                                                                    • Cyclist Detachment - 2nd Landsturm Battalion.
                                                                                                                    • 3rd Infantry Brigade
                                                                                                                      • 4th Grenadier Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 44th Infantry Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 33rd Fusilier Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 1st Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 4th Abteilung 6th Reserve Foot Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 872 Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                                                      • 1364 Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                                                      • 1392 Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                                                      • 1st Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                      • 2nd Company Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                      • 4th Company Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                      • 2nd Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                      • 4th Searchlight Section
                                                                                                                      • 2nd Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                      • 159th Wireless Detachment
                                                                                                                      • 5th Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                      • 11th Field Hospital
                                                                                                                      • 12th Field Hospital
                                                                                                                      • 195th Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                                                      • 2nd Landwehr Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 5th Landwehr Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 10th Landwehr Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 2nd Bavarian Landwehr Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 811 Field Artillery Battery
                                                                                                                      • 905 Field Artillery Battery
                                                                                                                      • 25th Bavarian Engineers Battalion
                                                                                                                      • 2nd Bavarian Landwehr Pioneer Company
                                                                                                                      • 3rd Bavarian Landwehr Pioneer Company
                                                                                                                      • 502 Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                      • 502 Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                      • 24th Bavarian Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                      • 17th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                                                      • 63rd Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                                                      • 32nd Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                                                      • 2nd Landwehr Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 5th Landwehr Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 10th Landwehr Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 2nd Bavarian Landwehr Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                      • 25th Bavarian Engineers Battalion
                                                                                                                      • 2nd Bavarian Landwehr Pioneer Company
                                                                                                                      • 3rd Bavarian Landwehr Pioneer Company
                                                                                                                      • 12 Bavarian Searchlight Section
                                                                                                                      • 502 Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                      • 502 Signals Command
                                                                                                                      • 24th Bavarian Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                      • 17th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                                                      • 63rd Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                                                      • 53 Mixed Landwehr Brigade
                                                                                                                        • 124 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                        • 125 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                        • 6th Bavarian Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                        • 7th Bavarian Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                        • 53 Mixed Landwehr Brigade
                                                                                                                          • 124 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                          • 125 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                          • 120 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                          • 122 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                          • 6th Reserve Jäger Battalion
                                                                                                                          • 3rd Landwehr Squadron, 13th Cavalry District.
                                                                                                                          • 3rd Landsturm Squadron, 13th Cavalry District.
                                                                                                                          • 6th Company, 13th Pioneers
                                                                                                                          • 3rd Company, 18th Pioneers
                                                                                                                          • 302nd Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                          • 54 Landwehr Brigade
                                                                                                                            • 120 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                            • 122 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                            • 125 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                            • 3rd Landwehr Squadron, 13th Cavalry District.
                                                                                                                            • 4th Squadron, 20th Uhlan Regiment.
                                                                                                                            • 142nd Artillery Command
                                                                                                                            • 2nd Landwehr Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                            • 402 Engineering Battalion
                                                                                                                            • 1st Landwehr Company 13th Pioneers
                                                                                                                            • 5th Landwehr Company 13th Pioneers
                                                                                                                            • 302 Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                            • 299 Searchlight Section
                                                                                                                            • 502 Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                            • 54 Landwehr Brigade
                                                                                                                              • 120 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                              • 122 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                              • 125 Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                              • 3rd Landwehr Squadron, 13th Cavalry District.
                                                                                                                              • 4th Squadron, 20th Uhlan Regiment.
                                                                                                                              • 142nd Artillery Command
                                                                                                                              • 2nd Landwehr Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                              • 402 Engineering Battalion
                                                                                                                              • 1st Landwehr Company 13th Pioneers
                                                                                                                              • 5th Landwehr Company 13th Pioneers
                                                                                                                              • 302 Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                              • 224 Searchlight Section
                                                                                                                              • 502 Signal Command
                                                                                                                              • 502 Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                              • 176 Wireless Detachment
                                                                                                                              • 572 Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                              • 254 Field Hospital
                                                                                                                              • 25 Landwehr Field Hospital
                                                                                                                              • 502 Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                                                              • 3rd Bavarian Brigade
                                                                                                                                • 3rd Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                • 20th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                • 12th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                • 15th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                • 2nd Bavarian Artillery Brigade
                                                                                                                                • 4th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                • 9th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                • 2nd Field Company, 1st Bavarian Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                                • 2nd Bavarian Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                                                                • 2nd Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                                • 4th Bavarian Brigade
                                                                                                                                  • 12th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                  • 15th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                  • 20th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                  • 2nd Bavarian Artillery Brigade
                                                                                                                                  • 2nd Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                  • 9th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                  • 2nd Field Company, 1st Bavarian Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                                  • 4th Field Company, 1st Bavarian Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                                  • 2nd Reserve Company, 19th Pioneers
                                                                                                                                  • 2nd Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                                  • 2nd Bavarian Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                                                                  • 2nd Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                                  • 4th Bavarian Brigade
                                                                                                                                    • 12th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                    • 15th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                    • 20th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                    • 2nd Bavarian Artillery Command
                                                                                                                                    • 9th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                    • 2nd Field Company, 1st Bavarian Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                                    • 4th Field Company, 1st Bavarian Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                                    • 2nd Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                                    • 2nd Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                                    • 2nd Bavarian Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                                    • 6th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                                                                    • Veterinary Hospital
                                                                                                                                    • 4th Bavarian Brigade
                                                                                                                                      • 12th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                      • 15th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                      • 20th Bavarian Regiment
                                                                                                                                      • 2nd Bavarian Artillery Command
                                                                                                                                      • 9th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                      • 1st Abteilung, 3rd Bavarian Reserve Foot Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                      • 151 Bavarian Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                                                                      • 153 Bavarian Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                                                                      • 160 Bavarian Light Ammunition Column
                                                                                                                                      • 7th Bavarian Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                                        • 2nd Bavarian Pioneer Company
                                                                                                                                        • 4th Bavarian Pioneer Company
                                                                                                                                        • 2nd Bavarian Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                                        • 2nd Bavarian Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                                        • 107th Wireless Detachment
                                                                                                                                        • 2nd Bavarian Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                                        • 6th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                                                                        • 8th Bavarian Field Hospital
                                                                                                                                        • 6th Guard Brigade
                                                                                                                                          • Guard Fusiliers
                                                                                                                                          • Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                                          • 9th Grenadier Regiment
                                                                                                                                          • 5th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                          • 6th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                          • (formed of the Juterbog Instruction Regiment)
                                                                                                                                          • Pioneer Company
                                                                                                                                          • 3rd Guard Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                                          • 3rd Guard Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                                                                          • 3rd Guard Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                                          • 5th Guard Brigade
                                                                                                                                            • 5th Foot Regiment
                                                                                                                                            • 5th Grenadier Regiment
                                                                                                                                            • Guard Fusiliers
                                                                                                                                            • Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                                            • 5th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                            • 6th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                            • (formed of the Juterbog Instruction Regiment)
                                                                                                                                            • 5th Guard Brigade
                                                                                                                                              • 5th Foot Regiment
                                                                                                                                              • 5th Grenadier Regiment
                                                                                                                                              • Guard Fusiliers
                                                                                                                                              • Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                                              • 5th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                              • 6th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                              • (formed of the Juterbog Instruction Regiment)
                                                                                                                                              • Pioneer Company
                                                                                                                                              • 3rd Guard Pontoon Engineers
                                                                                                                                              • 3rd Guard Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                                              • 6th Guard Brigade
                                                                                                                                                • Guard Fusiliers
                                                                                                                                                • Landwehr Regiment
                                                                                                                                                • 9th Grenadier Regiment
                                                                                                                                                • 3rd Squadron Guard Reserve Uhlan Regiment
                                                                                                                                                • 1st Squadron 2nd Guard Dragoon Regiment
                                                                                                                                                • Artillery Command
                                                                                                                                                • 5th Guard Field Artillery Regiment
                                                                                                                                                • 104th Pioneer Battalion
                                                                                                                                                • 1st Company, 28th Pioneers
                                                                                                                                                • 274th Pioneer Company
                                                                                                                                                • 3rd Guard Trench Mortar Company
                                                                                                                                                • 280th Searchlight Section
                                                                                                                                                • 3rd Guard Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                                                • 55th Telephone Detachment
                                                                                                                                                • 7th Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                                                • 265th Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                                                • 393rd Ambulance Company
                                                                                                                                                • 35th Field Hospital
                                                                                                                                                • 3rd Guards Veterinary Hospital

                                                                                                                                                1st August 1914 Early actions 1914 1st German Division part of 1st Army Corps and 8th Army then with 9th and 10th Armies

                                                                                                                                                1914-1915

                                                                                                                                                Along with the 2nd Division, the 1st Division formed the 1st Army Corps (Koenigsberg).

                                                                                                                                                Russia

                                                                                                                                                The 1st Army Corps was engaged on the Russian Front at the very beginning of the war.

                                                                                                                                                Up until November, the 1st Division participated in the operations of East Prussia and notably in the battle of Tannenberg (Aug. 27-29).

                                                                                                                                                In December the two division of the 1st Corps separated. The 2nd Division remained in the north and the 1st Division went to the 9th Army, from December, 1914, to January, 1915 (Bzura-Rawka), then to the Army of the South, operating in the Carpathians and on the Dniester, from February, 1915, to February, 1916.

                                                                                                                                                1st August 1914 Early actions 1914 1st Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and 6th German Army.

                                                                                                                                                1914.

                                                                                                                                                Lorraine.

                                                                                                                                                At the beginning of the war the 1st Bavarian Division, forming, with the 2nd Bavarian Division, the 1st Bavarian Corps, was part of the 6th Army (Bavarian Crown Prince). It detrained at Sarrebruecken (Aug. 8-9), crossed the frontier, sacked Badonviller on the 12th and withdrew to the north of Sarrebruecken on the 17th. It fought at Sarrebruecken on the 20th. In liaison on the left with the Badeners of the 14th Corps, it crossed the frontier and advanced to Nossoncourt and Xaffevillers (Sept. 6th) via Baccarat. On September 12th, the division, having been withdrawn, was reassembled at Peltre (near Metz). It then entrained at Metz on the 14th and 15th, and detrained near Namur, reaching Peronne on the 24th.

                                                                                                                                                1st August 1914 Early actions 1914 1st Bavarian Reserve Division part of 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps and 6th German Army

                                                                                                                                                1914 Lorraine.

                                                                                                                                                The Bavarian Reserve Division(1st Bavarian Reserve Corps, with the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division) was at the beginning of the war part of the 6th Army (Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria), and detrained in Lorraine August 13-14. After having helped to check the French offensive in Lorraine, participated in the battle of August 20, entered Luneville, and after having fought at Einville, early in September, it went to rest in the vicinity of the Paris-Avricourt railroad, and later marched to Metz by stages.

                                                                                                                                                Arras.

                                                                                                                                                On September 27-28 the division entrained at Metz and was carried to Cambrai. Entering the line between Douai and Arras, it fought at Izel, Gavrelle, Rouvroy (Oct.2-3). On the 5th its right wing was at Souchez, the whole 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps being then in line north of Arras. October 23 the two divisions of the corps attacked violently along the Carency-Roclincourt front they remained in the line until June, 1915, the lst Bavarian Division being between Roclincourt and Ecurie.

                                                                                                                                                1st August 1914 Actions during 1914 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and 6th German Army

                                                                                                                                                Lorraine 1914.

                                                                                                                                                The origin of the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division dates from the stabilization of the Lorraine front after the check of the Germans before Grand-Couronne in September, 1914. At the beginning of the war the different elements which were to enter into the composition of the division were employed in Lorraine in rear of the combatant troops. The 71st Landwehr Regiment came from the war garrison of Strasburg. These elements grouped in three brigades forming the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division, were brought up to the front early in September and put into line in the Chateau-Salins sector (from Jallaucourt to the Rhine-Marne Canal).

                                                                                                                                                1st August 1914 Actions 1914 to 1917 1st German Naval Division part of German Naval Corps and 4th German Army

                                                                                                                                                1914-1917.

                                                                                                                                                Belgium. At the beginning of the war the Field Army contained only one naval division. This division entered Belgium on September 4, 1914, detrained at Brussels and on the 6th September took up its position to the left of the corps which was besieging Antwerp. After the taking of the city on October 10 the division marched along the coast, arrived at a point between Ostend and Bruges on October 23rd and on November 2nd relieved the 4th Ersatz Division on the front of Nieuport St. Georges.

                                                                                                                                                On the 24th November 1914, the Naval Corps was formed by adding a 2nd Naval Division to the 1st. After this time the Naval Corps occupied the sea front and the sector of the coast in occupied Flanders. The staffs of the 1st and 2nd Naval Divisions were permanently in command of this sector - the sea front (from Raversyde to the frontier of Zeeland as far as Maldegem was assigned to the 1st Naval Division the front on land from the North Sea to Schoorbakke, 4 kilometers southeast Nieuport, to the 2nd Naval Division). The six regiments of Marine Fusiliers alternated between the two sectors, and consequently changed from one division to the other. In April 1917, the three naval infantry regiments were withdrawn from the 1st and 2nd Naval Divisions to organize a new Division, the 3rd Naval Division. These regiments had already formed a provisional division, from the end of September 1916 to January 1917, when they were engaged on the Somme. After fighting east of Ypres (August to November, 1917), the 3rd Naval Division came into line at Nieuport (Lombartzyde) to the right of the 2nd Naval Division in December.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence - 1917 Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                The Marine or Sailor Fusiliers, recruited at the beginning of the war from among the seamen or the population of the ports, had only a mediocre combat value at the time. Since 1917, in consequence of reinforcements taken from the land army and also in consequence of reducing the age of the effectives, the regiments of Naval Fusiliers seem to be of better quality. From a recruiting standpoint, they may be compared with the active divisions of the German Army.

                                                                                                                                                1st August 1914 Actions during 1914 2nd German Guard Division part of Guard Corps and 2nd German Army

                                                                                                                                                1914.

                                                                                                                                                France. Entrained August 9 to 11 (notebooks). Detrained at Beutgenbach (12 kilos east of Malmedy). Entered Belgium August 14. Crossed the Meuse at Huy August 18. Crossed the Sambre at Auvelais (Aug. 22) on the right of the 1st Guard Division. Fought at Falisolle and Aisemont the 23rd at Mettet the 24th. Fought on the 29th at Haution and Vallee-aux-Bleds on the 30th at St. Pierre (west of Vervins), on the left of the 1st Guard Division. From there via Lugny, Boncourt, La Malmaison, Ville-aux-Bois, Sarcy, Epernay, Avize, Vertus fought after September 6 at Ecury-le-Repos and Normee.

                                                                                                                                                Retreated on the 9th at Vertus 10th at Tauxieres 11th at Thuizy. Was before Reims until September 30. In Artois in October (Bucquoy, Ivlonchy-aux-Bois, Adinfer), near the 1st Guard Division. Split up in November like the latter sent one of its brigades, the 4th, in the region of Ypres (Gheluvelt) and remained there until the end of December.

                                                                                                                                                1st August 1914 Actions during 1914 German 2nd Division part of 1st Army Corps and 8th Army

                                                                                                                                                Divisional activity during 1914

                                                                                                                                                The first and second divisions formed the 1st Army Corps.

                                                                                                                                                Russia. At the beginning of the war the 2nd Division was sent to the Russian front. Up to the month of November it participated in the operations in Oriental Prussia (Tannenberg, Aug. 27-29). In November 1914, the 2nd Division, minus one brigade, which continued to hold its old sector, was withdrawn and included in the group which attacked in the direction of Lodz and operated between the Vistula and the Warta continuing its activities, it attempted to cross the Bzura-Rawka opposite Warsaw in the district of Lowicz.

                                                                                                                                                1st August 1914 Actions 1914 to 1917 2nd Landwehr Division part of 5th German Army

                                                                                                                                                (Thirteenth District-Wurttemberg.) 1914 Argonne. The 2nd Landwehr Division (Franke Division) forms a part of the Argonne group and has continuously occupied sectors of this district since September 1914. At the beginning of the campaign it comprised a Wurttemberg and a Bavarian brigade. Engaged at Etain August 24, 1914, it crossed the Meuse at Stenay on the 31st.

                                                                                                                                                Beginning with September it occupied the line in the woods of Cheppy and Malancourt.

                                                                                                                                                1915 Argonne.

                                                                                                                                                Vauquois-bois de Malancourt sector. At the end of September 1915, portions of the division (one battalion of the 6th and one of the 7th Bavarian Landwehr) were assigned to service in the district of Massiges. They rejoined the Vauquois sector at the end of October.

                                                                                                                                                1916 Argonne.

                                                                                                                                                Vauquois-bois d'Avocourt and Malancourt sector. At the beginning of 1916 the 2nd Landwehr Division was reconstituted with exclusively Wurttemberg elements, including the 120th Landwehr, withdrawn from the Bavarian Ersatz Division, and the 122nd Landwehr, proceeding from the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division. The 9th Bavarian brigade went over to the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division.

                                                                                                                                                1917 Argonne.

                                                                                                                                                In the Cheppy-bois d'Avocourt wood sector. At the end of August 1917, the 2nd Landwehr Division changed places with the 2nd Bavarian Division and took the Nord Four sector of Paris-Bolante-Courte-Chausse.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligance 1917 Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                Sector division. Did not leave Argonne from the beginning of the war. On several occasions it furnished young men to active and reserve Wurttemberg regiments, replacing them by older Landsturm men.

                                                                                                                                                1st August 1914 Actions during 1914 2nd Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and German 6th Army

                                                                                                                                                Divisional Actions during 1914

                                                                                                                                                (First Bavarian District-Southwest of Bavaria, Bavarian Swabia.) 1914 Lorraine.

                                                                                                                                                At the beginning of August the 2nd Bavarian Division which, with the 1st Bavarian Division, formed the 1st Bavarian Corps, was a part of the army of the Crown Prince of Bavaria (6th Army). The 3rd Brigade, covering troops, detrained at Reding near Saarburg, on the 3rd of August. On the 9th the division was at its full strength. It proceeded to the frontier, reached Badonviller and retired as far as Gosselming (west of Saarburg) by the 17th of August, gave battle there on the 20th, and recrossed the frontier. It advanced as far as Xaffevillers (Sep 7th), whence it retired to Itlorhange (Sep 10th). On September 15 the division entrained at Metz. It detrained near Namur, gained Peronne by stages, and was engaged at Foucaucourt by the 24th.

                                                                                                                                                Somme.

                                                                                                                                                Together with the 1st Bavarian Corps it was attached to the 2nd Army (Von Billow), operating on the Somme in the district of Peronne. It took part in the fiercely contested battles which took place there but a short time after the stabilization of the front and suffered serious losses. At the beginning of the campaign, October 30, the 12th Infantry had 50 officers and 1,910 men who were unable to take part in action.

                                                                                                                                                The division was maintained in this district up to the month of October, 1914, first to the south of the Somme, later, at the beginning of November, 1914, between Dompierre and Maricourt.

                                                                                                                                                5th August 1914 Early actions 1914 Bavarian Ersatz Division part of 7th Army

                                                                                                                                                The Bavarian Ersatz Division consisted, at the outbreak of the war, of the three mixed Bavarian Ersatz brigades, Nos. 1, 5 and 9 (12 battalions), which detrained on the 17th-18th August 1914 in the region of Schelestadt. But afterwards this designation indicated a composite division (Benzin Division) formed from the 3rd Bavarian Reserve Brigade and the 59th Landwehr Brigade (28th Ersatz, Baden) and the 120th Landwehr Regiment (Wurttemberg).

                                                                                                                                                Vosges.

                                                                                                                                                The Benzin Division was first engaged in the Vosges (St. Marie Ridge, St. Die, Laveline) until September 1914. After a rest in the Valley of the Bruche, it entrained at the end of September for Mars-la-Tour and reinforced the 3rd Bavarian Corps in the St. Mihiel area.

                                                                                                                                                5th August 1914 Early actions 1914 1st Guards Reserve Division part of 2nd German Army

                                                                                                                                                Belgium 1914.

                                                                                                                                                At the beginning of the war the 1st Guard Reserve Division together with the 3rd Guard Division forming the Guard Reserve Corps, swept into Belgium as part of the 2nd Army under von Buelow.

                                                                                                                                                On the 16th of August it crossed the Meuse at Ardenne and pushed on as far as Namur by the 20th August. On the 29th the two divisions (Guard Reserve Corps) were brought back to Aix-la-Chapelle and left for East Prussia.

                                                                                                                                                1st September 1914 Poland.

                                                                                                                                                At the beginning of October the Guard Reserve Corps, attached to the Southern Army Group, took part in the invasion of the southern part of Poland. It fought at Opatow (4th Oct) and suffered severe losses at Lodz while retreating from the Russian armies.

                                                                                                                                                During the winter of 1914-15 it fought on the Bzura.

                                                                                                                                                24th September 1914 Race to the sea 1st Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and 2nd German Army.

                                                                                                                                                Somme 1914.

                                                                                                                                                In the last days of September, 1914, at the time of the "race to the sea," the two divisions of the 1st Bavarian Corps were in the 2nd Army (Von Buelow), which operated on the Somme in the Peronne region. They became heavily engaged notably at Combles (Oct. 24th) and at Maricourt (Dec. 17th). By the 4th November, the 1st Bavarian Regiment had had casualties of 63 officers and 2,090 men since the beginning of the war.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1915 Events in 1915 Bavarian Ersatz Division part of 7th Army

                                                                                                                                                Woevre 1915.

                                                                                                                                                The Benzino Division occupied the area east of St. Mihiel (Spada to Apremont) during the entire year 1915. In November it took the name of Bavarian Ersatz Division.

                                                                                                                                                The division rested in Lorraine from December, 1915, to the end of February, 1916.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1915 1915 actions 1st Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and 2nd German Army.

                                                                                                                                                1915.

                                                                                                                                                Artois. The 1st Bavarian Division was kept in line on the Somme (Dompierre-Maricourt) until October, 1915. Its composition was changed - the Body Infantry Regiment went to the Alpine Corps and the 10th Infantry to the 10th Bavarian Division. In return, the 24th Infantry (a new formation) was received.

                                                                                                                                                The division was taken to the region north of Arras (Neuville-Souchez sector), where it remained for almost seven months (October 1915 - May 1916).

                                                                                                                                                1st February 1915 Actions during 1915 German 2nd Division part of 1st Army Corps and 8th Army

                                                                                                                                                Divisional Activity in 1915

                                                                                                                                                At the beginning of February 1915, it reappeared in Oriental Prussia and participated in the offensive which ejected the Russians from this Province. It was engaged in its entirety in the district of Lyck and marched upon Augustowo and Grodno.

                                                                                                                                                The Russian counter attack launched in the vicinity of Prasnysz toward the end of March drew the 2nd Division to this sector.

                                                                                                                                                In July during the development of the Hindenburg offensive, it emerged from the Ostrolenka-Pultusk line and proceeded in a northerly direction.

                                                                                                                                                Upon the stabilization of the front the 2nd Division held a sector between Illukst and Lake Drisviaty (Dwinsk District).

                                                                                                                                                1st April 1915 Actions 1915 to 1916 2nd Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and German 6th Army

                                                                                                                                                1915 Artois.

                                                                                                                                                In April 1915, the division was reduced to three regiments through the cession of the 3rd Infantry to the 11th Bavarian Division. Between the l0th and 15th of October 1915, the 2nd Bavarian Division was placed on the Artois front in the Neuville-Souchez sector.

                                                                                                                                                About the 20th of December it was in the line at Bailleul-Sire-Berthoult between the western part of the Lille road and the Arras road. It remained there until the beginning of May 1916.

                                                                                                                                                1916 Verdun.

                                                                                                                                                At this date it was relieved and transported to Verdun. It participated in the violent battles which took place there in May and June in the vicinity of Douaumont and suffered serious losses (50 per cent of its personnel). It was reconstituted in June in the district of Merke-Romagne-sur-les-Cotes (reinforcement of from 50 to 100 men per company), and went back to the line near Thiaumont. It suffered serious losses in the attack of June 23 (the companies of the 12th Bavarian Regiment were reduced to about 40 men).

                                                                                                                                                Lorraine.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd Bavarian Division was withdrawn from this zone of combat about the 15th of July and was sent to the Apremont-St. Mihiel sector, where it was reconstituted. It received numerous reinforcements(convalescents and class of 16 men). During this period, which extends up to October 15th, it did not take part in any serious operation.

                                                                                                                                                Somme.

                                                                                                                                                At the end of October it was transported to the Somme (Sailly-Saillisel sector), where it was again put to a severe test. After staying a month in the Somme district it reoccupied the lines in the St. Mihiel sector at the beginning of December.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1916 1916 Actions 1st Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and 2nd German Army.

                                                                                                                                                1916.

                                                                                                                                                Verdun.

                                                                                                                                                About May 1916, the division was relieved to the west of Vimy and sent to the Verdun front, where it took part in the battles near Douaumont (May 23) and in those of June 1st and 8th. Re-formed in the Romagne sous les Cotes area, it re-entered line about June 22nd for new attacks. During this offensive the division suffered severely. It was relieved at the beginning of July. After a short rest behind the Verdun front the division reoccupied the Apremout - St. Mihiel sector, remaining there until October 11th, when it was reconstituted, receiving large reinforcements (recuperates and men of the 1916 class).

                                                                                                                                                Somme.

                                                                                                                                                Taken to the Caudry sector (near Cambrai), it was engaged on the Somme (Sailly-Saillisel, Morval) from October 13th to the end of November, where its losses were once again exceedingly heavy. The division reappeared in the region of St. Mihiel (Bois d'Ailly - Foret d'Apremont sector) at the beginning of December, and remained there until the early days of May, 1917.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1916 Actions in 1916 1st Bavarian Reserve Division part of 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps and 6th German Army

                                                                                                                                                1916.

                                                                                                                                                The division remained in line east of Arras, straddling the Scarpe until August 1916. From May to August, it comprised the 12th Bavarian Reserve Regiment, instead of the 3rd Bavarian Reserve Regiment, loaned temporarily by the 5th Bavarian Reserve Division.

                                                                                                                                                Somme.

                                                                                                                                                Withdrawn on August 8th, it went to the Somme. It was engaged on the 12th in the Clery sector, and was relieved as early as the 15th by the 1st Guard Division after having suffered heavily. The second fortnight in August the division was at rest near Cambrai. The end of that month and early in September, some elements of the division were engaged near Clery and Martinpuich in order to facilitate reliefs.

                                                                                                                                                Aisne.

                                                                                                                                                About the middle of September the 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps was withdrawn from the region of the Somme and sent to the Aisne, where the 1st Bavarian Reserve Division occupied a sector to the west of Craonne until the beginning of December. Brought back north of the Somme, it sent some elements into line in the Beaumont-Hamel sector (north of the Ancre, December 1916 - January 1917).

                                                                                                                                                1st February 1916 Events in 1916 Bavarian Ersatz Division part of 7th Army

                                                                                                                                                At the beginning of February, 1916, the 120th Landwehr Regiment was replaced by a Prussian Regiment, the 81st Landwehr.

                                                                                                                                                Woevre 1916. 1. On February 28, 1916, the Bavarian Ersatz Division took over the sector of Fresnes-en-Woevre-Ronvaux. It remained there until the end of October, 1916.

                                                                                                                                                On the 17th October 1916, the 4th Bavarian Reserve Regiment left the division temporarily to go to Galicia, to the 199th Division, and came back in November 1916.

                                                                                                                                                Somme 1916.

                                                                                                                                                From October 25th to November 15th, the Bavarian Ersatz Division took part in the battle of the Somme east of Gueudecourt, with the exception of the 81st Landwehr, which was definitely detached from the division.

                                                                                                                                                Transferred to the Aisne, the Division went into line in the vicinity of Craonne at the end of November.

                                                                                                                                                1st March 1916 Further moves 1st German Division part of 1st Army Corps 10th and 8th Army

                                                                                                                                                1916

                                                                                                                                                France.

                                                                                                                                                The division went to France in March 1916. The 41st Infantry Regiment detrained on the 13th March near Metz and the 48th Infantry Regiment at Hagondange on the 5th March 1916.

                                                                                                                                                Verdun.

                                                                                                                                                The division was put into the line near Vaux on the 20th April 1916, fought in the Bois de la Caillette in May, in the Bois de Vaux Chapitre and the Bois Fumin in June and July. It suffered enormous losses there. In the 1st Company of the 41st Infantry Regiment, the numbers on the pay books passed from 1,359 (10th Apr) to 1,674 (19th July), indicating the arrival of at least 316 reinforcements. From the beginning of the war until July, 1916, the regiment had received an average of 1,360 men per company.

                                                                                                                                                Russia.

                                                                                                                                                At the end of July, 1916, the 1st Division, leaving behind the 41st Infantry Regiment, which fought before Verdun in August, was once more taken to the eastern front, where it formed part of the Carpathian Corps.

                                                                                                                                                1st May 1915 Actions during 1915 1st Bavarian Reserve Division part of 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps and 6th German Army

                                                                                                                                                1915.

                                                                                                                                                Neuville - St. Vaast.

                                                                                                                                                In May, 1915, the 1st Bavarian Reserve Division was engaged at Neuville-St. Vaast, when it was reinforced by two battalions of the 99th Reserve Infantry Regiment. The 2nd Bavarian Reserve Regiment suffered casualties of 14 officers and 1,413 men.

                                                                                                                                                Le Labyrinthe.

                                                                                                                                                In June the division fought at the Labyrinth. It continued to hold the sector north of the Scarpe, but moved toward the south in December, the front of the 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps extending as far as Blaireville.

                                                                                                                                                1st July 1916 Actions during 1916 German 2nd Division part of 1st Army Corps and 8th Army

                                                                                                                                                Divisional Actions during 1916

                                                                                                                                                At the end of July 1916, portions of the 2nd Division were assigned to duty in Galicia to oppose the Russian advance.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1917 Events in 1917 Bavarian Ersatz Division part of 7th Army

                                                                                                                                                Aisne 1917.

                                                                                                                                                On the Aisne front, east of Craonne, the Bavarian Ersatz Division received the French offensive of April, and its conduct gained the order "Pour le Merite" for its general. Relieved at the end of April, it occupied a sector in the Apremont Wood from the middle of May to the end of August.

                                                                                                                                                Ypres 1917.

                                                                                                                                                On the 1st September it was in Belgium, where it was engaged on both sides of the Ypres-Henn road until September 25. The 3rd Battalion of the 4th Bavarian Reserve Regiment was almost destroyed on the 20th September 1917.

                                                                                                                                                Galicia 1917.

                                                                                                                                                At the beginning of October the division was transferred to the eastern front and sent into line southeast of Tarnopol in December. At the end of autumn 1917, the 28th Ersatz Regiment (Baden) was withdrawn from the division and replaced by the 18th Bavarian Reserve. The division was then entirely Bavarian.

                                                                                                                                                Recruiting.

                                                                                                                                                The Bavarian Ersatz Division is recruited from the 1st and 2nd Bavarian Corps districts.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence Value - 1917 Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                The Bavarian Ersatz Division is classed as a very mediocre division.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1917 1917 Actions 1st Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and 2nd German Army.

                                                                                                                                                1917.

                                                                                                                                                Plateau du Californie.

                                                                                                                                                Entrained about May 7th at Vigneulles, it proceeded to the Laon region, where it was in reserve (May 8-12th). The following day it took over the sector west of Hurtebise, where it participated in several attacks (May 20th - June 17th), losing heavily therein. The division was relieved June 21st and went to rest south of Mezieres (La Francheville, etc.), where it was reconstituted.

                                                                                                                                                Champagne.

                                                                                                                                                On July 25th it went back into the line on the Champagne front. (sector south of Ste. Marie a Py). It did not take part in any important engagements there. The division was withdrawn on the 27th December 1917.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence Value Estimate

                                                                                                                                                The division was recruited in the southern part of Bavaria. The presence of contingents from the Bavarian Alps was responsible for the withdrawal of the Body Regiment to form the Alpine Corps. Despite the losses it suffered during May and June in the Hurtebise sector, the 1st Bavarian Division may still be considered a good division. It has had time to reconstitute itself during the long calm period spent in Champagne (July 25th to Dec. 27,1917).

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1917 Actions in 1917 and 1918 1st Bavarian Reserve Division part of 1st Bavarian Reserve Corps and 6th German Army

                                                                                                                                                1917.

                                                                                                                                                Artois.

                                                                                                                                                After sometime at rest, the division went back into line February 27 to the north of Arras (Roclincourt-Neuville-St. Vaast). On April 9th, it received the full shock of the British attack, lost the villages of Thelus and Bailleul together with 1,500 prisoners.

                                                                                                                                                Regrettably the pages for the remainder of 1917 and 1918 are missing from our main source.

                                                                                                                                                Summary

                                                                                                                                                The 1st Bavarian Reserve Division (1. Bayerische Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Royal Bavarian Army, part of the German Army, in World War I. The division was formed on mobilization of the German Army in August 1914 as part of I Royal Bavarian Reserve Corps. The division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I. The division was raised and recruited in Bavaria. As a reserve division, it included a large number of recalled reservists and war volunteers.

                                                                                                                                                The 1st Bavarian Reserve Division fought in the opening phases of the war in the Battle of the Frontiers. It then participated in the Race to the Sea, including the Battle of Arras in October 1914. It remained in the trench lines in Flanders until 1916, when it entered the Battle of the Somme in August 1916. In late 1917, it participated in the Battle of Passchendaele. In 1918, the division fought in the Battle of the Lys. The division ended the war still fighting in the Lys region.

                                                                                                                                                Allied intelligence rated the division as a good division in 1917, but third class in 1918.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1917 Actions during 1917 German 2nd Division part of 1st Army Corps and 8th Army

                                                                                                                                                Divisional Actions during 1917

                                                                                                                                                The reconstituted 2nd Division was engaged in the Mitau sector up to the end of January 1917. All its units were identified in the vicinity of Kalnzen. On February 8th it entrained at Mitau for the western front. (Itinerary: Chavli, Kovno, Insterburg, Konigsberg, Stettin, Hamburg, Munster, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liege, Louvain, Bruxelles, Audenarde.)

                                                                                                                                                Belgium.

                                                                                                                                                Detrained on February 13th and remained at rest up to the end of March. It received reinforcements of various classes of men (wounded, convalescents and class 1917 reservists). The division occupied the Wytschaete sector from the 25th of March to the beginning of June. (On April 15th and May 10th and 15th it received the first reinforcements from the class of 1918, the last having had only three months instruction. In all, 4,460 men between 1st January 1 and 1st June). On the 7th June, it left 2,825 men in the hands of British troops. On June 10th the 2nd Division retired from the Belgian front. It was placed at rest in the district of Audenarde in June and then entrained for the eastern front(end of June).

                                                                                                                                                Russia.

                                                                                                                                                It arrived in Russia at the beginning of July and was put at rest in the district of Vilna. On July 14th it was identified in the Illukst District.

                                                                                                                                                France.

                                                                                                                                                It returned to France on the 25th of November. It entrained on this date at Kovno and was transported over the following itinerary: Insterburg, Thorn, Posen, Frankfort-sur-Oder, Berlin, Paderborn, Crefeld, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liege, Namur and Vouziers (Nov. 30).

                                                                                                                                                On December 27th it relieved the 1st Bavarian Division in the Souain-Somme-Py sector.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence 1917 Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                Except during the period March-June 1917, when the 2nd Division was fighting in Belgium, it continuously occupied the Russian front from the beginning of the war till December, 1917.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1917 Actions 1917 to 1918 2nd Bavarian Landwehr Division part of 8th Army. Later part of 66th Corps(zbV) and 19th Army (zbV = zur besonderen Vervendung) (for special use)

                                                                                                                                                Divisional Actions and review.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd Bavarian Landwehr Division was formed in Lorraine at the end of December 1916 and the beginning of January 1917. Two of its regiments, the 5th Bavarian Landwehr and the 10th Bavarian Landwehr, were assigned respectively to the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division and the 33rd Reserve Division at that time on the Lorraine front. The 2nd Bavarian Landwehr was ceded by the 6th Bavarian Landwehr Division, which held a Vosges sector.

                                                                                                                                                Russia.

                                                                                                                                                As soon as it was constituted the 2nd Bavarian Landwehr Division was transported to the Eastern front via Frankfort and Leipzig.

                                                                                                                                                Courlande.

                                                                                                                                                Directed to Courlande and attached to the 8th Army it entered the line in the vicinity of Friedrichstadt (middle of January, 1917) and remained in this district up till February, 1918. In September it participated in the operations against Riga. In December a number of men were detached in order to reinforce the 10th Bavarian Division.

                                                                                                                                                1917 Allied Intelligence Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                It remained on the Russian front from the time of its formation (January, 1917). It held the calm sector of Courlande in 1917 it occupied Livonia in 1918 (May). Men under 35 years of age were withdrawn from the 5th Bavarian Landwehr in December 1917. It is rated as a 4th class division.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd Bavarian Landwehr Division initially served on the Eastern Front, entering the line in the Baltic region near Riga. In September 1917, it participated in the Battle of Riga. The division then remained on the line on the Duna River until the armistice on the Eastern Front in December 1917. For most of 1918, it served in Livonia and Estonia as part of the German occupation forces. In October 1918, it was transferred to the Western Front, and occupied a portion of the trench line in Lorraine until the end of World War I. Allied intelligence rated the division as fourth class.

                                                                                                                                                1st May 1917 Actions during 1917 2nd Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and German 6th Army

                                                                                                                                                Divisional Actions during 1917

                                                                                                                                                1917. Californie Plateau.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd Bavarian Division was withdrawn from the St. Mihiel sector between the 2nd and 5th of May 1917 and entrained at Mars-la-Tour on the 6th, whence it was transported via Conflans to Montcornet, where, during the night of the 8th, it gained the sector situated to the east of Hurtebise.

                                                                                                                                                From the 9th onward the 2nd Bavarian Division engaged some of its elements on the salient northeast of Californie Plateau (May 9th and 10th).

                                                                                                                                                The division occupied this sector up to the end of May and participated in serious engagements notably those of the 13th and 22nd of May to the northwest of the plateau. It was put to a very severe test. (The 9th Company of the 20th Battalion was reduced to 45 men.)

                                                                                                                                                Argonne.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd Bavarian Division was relieved at the beginning of June and sent to rest for 15 days at Camp Sissonne. Later it was transported to the Argonne, where it occupied the Grande Courte-Chausse sector. During this rest it received two reinforcements of 700 to 800 men on the 28th June and 300 men in July.

                                                                                                                                                At the end of August it changed sectors and went into the line toward Bois d'Avocourt (Bois de Cheppy).

                                                                                                                                                Meuse.

                                                                                                                                                The division was withdrawn from this sector at the end of October and remained in repose in the vicinity of Stenay up to the middle of November, whence it was directed to the sector west of the Bois-le-Chaume. The 12th Bavarian Regiment, which had been sent in reserve to the southeast of Altkirch about the 10th of November to ward off an expected French attack in Alsace, rejoined the division on the 6th December.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd Bavarian Division remained in this sector (southeast of Beaumont) up to January 1918 and then went to rest in the district of Longwy.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence 1917 Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd Bavarian Division participated on the 9th and 10th of May 1917 in violent but unsuccessful counterattacks on the salient northeast of the Californie Plateau. It appears that the Bavarians were always placed in the most dangerous positions and that they were sacrificed by the Prussians. In spite of this condition the 2nd Bavarian Division still showed itself as a good division (July, 1917).

                                                                                                                                                28th Aug 1917 Move to Eastern Front Guard Ersatz Division part of German 6th Army

                                                                                                                                                Riga 1917. The Division was taken to Chavli (Aug. 28), then to the Gross-Ekkau region. It entered the Front Line in the Uxkuell region and participated in the Riga offensive, entering Riga on the 3rd/4th September 1917.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1918 Events in 1918 Bavarian Ersatz Division part of 7th Army

                                                                                                                                                Verdun 1918.

                                                                                                                                                The division held the quiet Verdun sector until July 12, when it was relieved by the 231st Division.

                                                                                                                                                Vesle 1918.

                                                                                                                                                It was moved to the Vesle front and on July 25 relieved the 40th Division near Oulchy-le-Chateau. It remained in this sector until the 12th August, when it was withdrawn and sent to rest in the vicinity of Meubeuge.

                                                                                                                                                Champagne 1918.

                                                                                                                                                On the 1st September it proceeded to Mauchault and during the first days of September relieved the 88th Division in the line near Perthes. It was in the fighting between September 23 and October 3 in Champagne, losing about 2,000 men in that engagement.

                                                                                                                                                The division was so reduced in strength that it was dissolved shortly after its retirement from line in October.

                                                                                                                                                The 13th Bavarian Reserve Regiment was dissolved and the men drafted to the 15th Bavarian Division.

                                                                                                                                                The 15th Bavarian Reserve Regiment was also dissolved.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence Value - 1918 Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                The division was rated as third class. It was used only in defensive sectors during 1918.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1918 1918 Actions 1st Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and 2nd German Army.

                                                                                                                                                1918.

                                                                                                                                                Argonne.

                                                                                                                                                Withdrawn from the line, the Division was put through a course of training. It relieved the 80th Reserve Division north of Vauquois on February 17th. It was relieved by the 80th Reserve Division about the 1st of March.

                                                                                                                                                St. Quentin.

                                                                                                                                                On the opening day of the March offensive the division reinforced the front south of St. Quentin. It was withdrawn the next day. On March 23rd it came back into line north of Chauny. It was withdrawn about the 30th.

                                                                                                                                                Lassigny.

                                                                                                                                                On April 6th, it relieved the 3rd Bavarian Division west of Lassigny. It was in turn relieved by the 3rd Bavarian Division on the 12th.

                                                                                                                                                Champagne.

                                                                                                                                                Having suffered a great deal in the fighting on the Somme, the division was taken to a quiet sector in Champagne, relieving the 52nd Reserve Division on May 1st, north of Souain. About June 30th, it was relieved by the 30th Division. It reinforced the front near Souain on July 15th. It was withdrawn about the 31st.

                                                                                                                                                Soissons.

                                                                                                                                                The division entered the line northeast of Soissons on August 11th.

                                                                                                                                                Noyon.

                                                                                                                                                It was relieved by the Jaeger Division about August 19th and moved to the west, taking over the Cuts sector, southeast of Noyon on August 20th and was withdrawn on the 22nd.

                                                                                                                                                Coucy le Chateau.

                                                                                                                                                On the 31st August the division was identified at Folembray, northwest of Coucy-le-Chateau and was withdrawn about September 12th.

                                                                                                                                                Champagne.

                                                                                                                                                On about the 27th September it took of over the Maure sector, southeast of Vouziers, where it remained, fighting, until the signing of the armistice.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence 1918 Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                The 1st Bavarian is rated as a first-class assault division and it was utilized as such throughout 1918. It fought well and its losses were severe.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1918 Actions during 1918 2nd German Cavalry Division part of 2nd Cavalry Corps which preceded 1st and 2nd German Armies.

                                                                                                                                                Divisional Actions during 1918 (Report pages from 1914 to 1917 missing)

                                                                                                                                                The division was in the Stochod sector until February 28, when it advanced through Kiev and Kharkov to Rostov, where it was on August 4. At this date the division occupied the area between Kharkov and Rostov. The troops were frequently attacked by armed bands or by mobs. In this way they suffered some heavy losses. The German cruiser Goeben, which had been supporting them, was damaged by fire and had to put into Constantinople. Nothing was known of the divisions movements after August, 1918.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence 1918 Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                The division was considered as 4th class.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1918 Actions during 1918 German 2nd Division part of 1st Army Corps and 8th Army

                                                                                                                                                Divisional Actions during 1918.

                                                                                                                                                Champagne.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd Division remained in line in the Souaine-Somme-Py region until relieved by the 87th Division about April 2nd. It went back to the Army depot at Semide, where it stayed about a week drilling and maneuvering. On April 10th, it entrained at Machault and went via Rethel, Liart, Marle, then detrained at La Ferte-Chevresis, encamping in the vicinity. It traveled by St. Simon (Apr. 11), Ham, Solente (5 km. east of Roye), and Laboissiere, where it stayed until April 30th.

                                                                                                                                                Montdidier.

                                                                                                                                                On May 1st the division relieved the 51st Reserve Division at Monchel, south of Montdidier until relieved on the 31st August.

                                                                                                                                                St. Quentin.

                                                                                                                                                The division was identified in line near Essigny-le-Grand, south of St. Quentin on September 5th. It was relieved about the 15th by the extension of the fronts of the neighboring divisions. During the night of September 20-21 it went back into line north of St. Quentin, in the Bellenglise sector. It was withdrawn about the 10th. The division rested for a fortnight in the Avesnes area, then came into the line on October 24th, relieving the 19th Reserve Division east of Ribeinont (southeast of St. Quentin). It was withdrawn from line early in November and did not return.

                                                                                                                                                1918 Allied Intelligence Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd is rated as a third-class division. It was used in a great deal of heavy fighting and suffered severe losses (July 23 it lost 54 officers and 1,800 men in prisoners alone) west of the Avre the 9th and 10th of August it lost 443 prisoners in its engagements between August and October it lost over 1,500 prisoners). Nevertheless, it was never used as an attacking division, but confined itself to holding the sectors allotted it on account of its weakened condition and lowered morale (there are several cases of insubordination on record), it did not acquit itself any too well.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1918 Actions during 1918 2nd Landwehr Division part of 5th German Army

                                                                                                                                                1918 Argonne.

                                                                                                                                                The division remained in line in the Apremont sector, engaging in but little activity until the American attack of September 26th. From that time on until it was withdrawn, October 25th, it fought a great deal.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence 1918 Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                Most of the young men of the division were taken from it to be sent to other organizations early in the year. On October 12th the corps commander telegraphed the King of Wurttemberg (the 2nd Landwehr Division comes from Wurttemberg): The 2nd Landwehr Division has particularly distinguished itself by its bravery and intrepidity during the last combats in the Argonne and has thus contributed toward the failure of the enemy's attempt to break through. It was badly used on the opening day of the American attack, but it fought hard. It loaned companies to various other divisions, including the 1st and 5th Guard Divisions and for days at a time these Landwehr troops were making the greatest resistance in the Aire Valley. While the division lost only 795 prisoners during the offensive, its total losses undoubtedly are above 5,000, there being evidence to show that many companies did not have more than 25 men, there being only three companies per battalion and, in at least one case, only two battalions in the regiment. It is rated as a fourth-class division.

                                                                                                                                                1st January 1918 Actions during 1918 2nd Bavarian Division part of 1st Bavarian Corps and German 6th Army

                                                                                                                                                Divisional Actions during 1918.

                                                                                                                                                1918 Meuse.

                                                                                                                                                The division remained in line north of the Bois des Fosses until relieved by the 19th Reserve Division on January 14th. It went then to the Longwy region, where it was put through a stiff course of training in open warfare.

                                                                                                                                                Amiens.

                                                                                                                                                On the 23rd March it entrained at Audun-le-Roman, and traveled via Longwy-Sedan-Charleville-Hirson-Anor-Avesnes-Le Cateau-Bertry-Caudry to Cambrai, where it detrained March 24-25. At first the division marched in the direction of Bapaumes, but was diverted in a southerly direction on the way and passed through Le Transloy-Sailly-Saillisel-Peronne-Villers-Carbonnel-Estrees-Foucaucourt and billeted at Beaucourt-en-Santerre on the night of March 30-31. On April 2nd it attacked at Morisel and two days later to the southwest of Morisel. It fought then until the 15th, when it side-slipped to the north, relieving the 54th Division, its place being taken by the 15th Division. It was relieved about May 4th by the 21st Division.

                                                                                                                                                It moved to the area southeast of Ghent, and there was reconstituted and trained. On June 2nd, it relieved the 14th Bavarian Division in the Morisel sector. It was relieved in the middle of the month by the extension of fronts of the neighboring divisions.

                                                                                                                                                Champagne.

                                                                                                                                                It rested in the rear of the front in Champagne for about a month and then entered line in the Navarin sector (north of Souain), being identified by prisoners on the 15th July. It was withdrawn on the 20th July.

                                                                                                                                                Vesle.

                                                                                                                                                On the 4th August the division relieved the 22nd Division at Jonchery (on the Vesle, east of Fismes). It remained in line, taking part in the general retirement, until the armistice.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence 1918 Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                The 2nd Bavarian is one of the very best German shock divisions. It was called upon to do a great deal of heavy fighting, and always acquitted itself well. It suffered severe losses in consequence, but these were made good as long as the German High Command had replacements at its disposal.

                                                                                                                                                1st May 1918 Actions during 1918 1st German Naval Division part of German Naval Corps and 4th German Army

                                                                                                                                                1918.

                                                                                                                                                The division was out of the front line in 1918 until the 1st May. From that date until the 4th November it held the extreme right of the German line.

                                                                                                                                                Allied Intelligence 1918 Value Estimate.

                                                                                                                                                The division was rated as fourth class. Until the last month of the war its front was quiet.

                                                                                                                                                9th Oct 1918 Final Actions in 1918 Jäger Division part of 54th Corps z.b.V German Second Army. are engaged in fighting in and around the Hermannstellung from 9th to 21st of October.

                                                                                                                                                After the Armistice (1100 on the 11th November 1918) the Division began the clearance of occupied areas and the march home to Berlin where it was disbanded on the 18th December 1918.

                                                                                                                                                If you can provide any additional information, please add it here.


                                                                                                                                                The story of how Leuven’s jewel was twice destroyed and rebuilt

                                                                                                                                                Few libraries in the world have experienced such a dramatic history as the library of the university in Leuven (KU Leuven). Established only a few years after the founding of the university in 1425, it collected rare books and manuscripts over the centuries, only to lose them to France after the French revolution. But much worse was to come during the two world wars in 1914 and 1940.

                                                                                                                                                The original university library building has been located since 1636 in the old cloth hall (currently the University Hall). During the First World War, German soldiers put fire to the building and its precious collections. After the war, a new library with a bell tower was built with American support, with a greater magnificence, and was almost turned into a war memorial.


                                                                                                                                                The great hall of the of the old library in 1914, before it was destroyed.

                                                                                                                                                The library was destroyed again directly after Nazi-Germany’s invasion of Belgium in the next world war and rebuilt brick by brick after the war as a sign of Leuven’s resilience and spirit. Today, the library is a modern humanities library, the main one in a complex of 24 university libraries and learning centres, which attracts both students and tourists.

                                                                                                                                                The dramatic history started in 1795-1797 when thousands of books were confiscated and brought to France. Unlike the Grand Beguinage in Leuven, a kind of religious retreat for women that was dissolved after the French revolution, the library was not a religious institution but it belonged to a catholic university, which was closed down by the French revolutionaries.

                                                                                                                                                The first destruction

                                                                                                                                                “One of our professors is currently trying to locate the books in France,” says Hilde van Kiel, director of KU Leuven Libraries, but she is not optimistic about returning them to where they belong. We focused instead on the two calamities in the world wars. There is no doubt that the destruction of the library in WW1 was a wanton and deliberate act by the German army.

                                                                                                                                                A permanent exhibition in the bell tower of the library building – admittedly coloured by Belgian patriotism – tells the tragic story that gave rise to German denials in the heat of the war and an outpouring of international solidarity with Belgium. A propaganda war, with cartoons and statements by intellectuals for and against militarism, started directly after the fire.


                                                                                                                                                The burnt-out great hall of the old library in 1914. © Leuven University Archives

                                                                                                                                                What happened then in Leuven seems to be, in retrospect, a warning about what would happen on a much larger scale during WW2. On 4 August 1914, Germany invaded neutral Belgium. In Leuven, a Belgian counterattack had come to a halt just before the town on 25 August. At dusk, German soldiers fired on each other in panic and blamed the shooting on civilians.

                                                                                                                                                On the night of 25-26 August, German troops set fire to part of the town in retaliation for an alleged attack by snipers, according to the exhibition. “This was the beginning of terror that went into history as the sacking of Leuven. When the smoke cleared, it turned out that 2,000 buildings had been reduced to ashes and 248 civilians had been killed.”


                                                                                                                                                On the night of 25-26 August 1914, German troops set Leuven on fire in retaliation for civilian resistance against their invasion. Half of the city was destroyed.

                                                                                                                                                Leuven was subject to plundering and murder, writes journalist Jan van Impe in a booklet (2012) on the history of the library, which is for sale at the ticket office. Hundreds of civilians were deported to Germany in railway cattle cars. In the fire, around 300,000 books, 800 incunabula (books printed until 1500 in the first years after the invention of typographic printing) and 1,000 manuscripts were lost forever.


                                                                                                                                                Leuven, 1914: Belgian citizens resisting German soldiers. © Ullstein Bild

                                                                                                                                                The interwar period

                                                                                                                                                As soon as the news spread about the destruction of the library, the outside world, especially the US, expressed solidarity with Leuven. An American committee was formed in 1918 after the end of the war, followed later by a relief committee for Belgium. They raised the necessary funding for the rebuilding, promising that donors would be immortalized by inscriptions on the walls.

                                                                                                                                                The task to design the new library building was given to American architect Whitney Warren, known for the Grand Central Terminal in New York. The work took seven years (1921-1928) and was inspired by imaginary Flemish neo-renaissance architecture in an American style, says Van Kiel.

                                                                                                                                                The new library, located next to Mgr. Ladueuzeplein at the highest point in the city centre, was meant to be become a display of friendship between the US and Belgium. This is still seen in the façade of the front of the building with plaques bearing the names of American universities and sculptures of the American eagle.


                                                                                                                                                The main Library hall today. © KU Leuven Libraries

                                                                                                                                                American presidents and their wives used to pay visits to the library and the American flag is still hoisted over the building every 4 th of July. The current president has not visited the library yet, but it is a compulsory stop for any American tourist coming to Leuven. The other allied powers that defeated Germany are also represented by their national symbols.

                                                                                                                                                The centre gable of the building is adorned with a four-and-a-half metre tall statue of a militant Madonna, surrounded by two saints slaying dragons, symbolizing evil. A visitor to the library today will be asked to start the tour with exiting the building to have a good look at the façade with all its symbols.

                                                                                                                                                Destroyed and rebuilt for a second time

                                                                                                                                                But the building today is not the original one reconstructed after WW1. After acquiring more than 900,000 volumes, the library suffered a new disaster in mid-May 1940, just a few days after Nazi Germany’s invasion of Belgium. Again the library was completely destroyed by fire and only 15,000 volumes survived the disaster.

                                                                                                                                                Jan van Impe writes that the cause of the second fire continues to be a source of controversy until today. It might have been bombed by mistake by the Allies or deliberately destroyed by the Nazis, who saw it as an anti-German monument. Repairs started as soon as Belgium was liberated in 1944 and resulted in a new building modelled after the old one.

                                                                                                                                                The main reading room, full with students and open to visitors, is 44 metres long and 13 metres wide, with two smaller reading rooms left and right. The room was completely destroyed in 1940, with the exception of the original American oak chairs, and had to be refurbished. Hilde van Kiel showed us a display of burned books, a reminder of the fires that destroyed the library twice.

                                                                                                                                                The words of the German poet Heinrich Heine springs to mind: “Where they have burned books, they will end in burning human beings.”

                                                                                                                                                The second main attraction for the visitor is the 74-metre tall bell tower. A model of the tower is found in the gallery on the ground floor. A winding spiral staircase, consisting of about 200 steps, brings the visitor to the top balcony where he/she is rewarded with an astonishing view of Leuven.

                                                                                                                                                No wonder that Hilde van Kiel is proud of the library, a true jewel among the many KU Leuven Libraries. “It is a classical and still modern institution,” she summarizes. “The library is overcrowded with students and researchers, who appreciate the atmosphere in the reading room and come there for individual studies and research. Also the public can borrow books after registration.”


                                                                                                                                                Germany neither goes east OR west 1914

                                                                                                                                                The French certainly had a qualitative and quantitative advantage in light artillery, but the Germans were ultimately better equipped with medium and heavy artillery, which outranged their French equivalents. Glenn239 has already noted German shovel technology, which OTL proved rather effective at negating light artillery. Further, under the existing French doctrine the use of artillery was strictly optional (i.e. the absence of artillery support and/or better intelligence were not seen as valid reasons to delay an offensive) and the role of artillery during such offensives was limited to conserve ammunition.

                                                                                                                                                The obvious flaws in the French doctrine would eventually be remedied, but in the initial weeks the French would be slaughtered. Even with a decent doctrine, the French lacked the heavy artillery and howitzers to effectively deal with entrenched defenders.

                                                                                                                                                The French were an extremely well equipped and trained continental army, but despite an obsessively offensive mindset, the French lacked the doctrines and equipment (specifically heavy artillery and howitzers) to deal with entrenched defenders. The French army was well funded and had a history of innovation, from Poudre Bto fast firing artillery and in 1914 held a significant edge in army aviation. The French would have wiped the floor with any continental power, except the Germans who were the best trained, best equipped and had the least bad doctrines. The OTL German blunders could often be attributable to reserve officers using their initiative and not necessarily following the best practice espoused under existing German doctrine.

                                                                                                                                                The reason I rate Joffre so poorly is because he took over a first class French army and introduced ill conceived offensive doctrines that almost destroyed the French army in 1914. He gets bonus points for influencing the Russians to do likewise. Neither Cadorna nor Conrad had the resources to squander to the same extent. Notwithstanding the above, I appreciate you have identified political/ environmental factors that might have influenced Joffre's decisions and limited his options. In OTL the Anglo-French forces inflicted a costly defeat on the Germans at Marne and forced the Germans to defend a border from Switzerland to the English Channel, but still the Russians made demands and threats that more should be done in the west to keep the Germans occupied. With a condensed western front, I don't think there is an easy way to satisfy Russian expectations.

                                                                                                                                                I am still curious about your thoughts on Joffre's desire for an Ardennes offensive and the timing related thereto. FYI - I'm skeptical about the French preparation (prima facie limited to Joffre's private etchings) and underlying Ardennes terrain/infrastructure, but still believe there would have been no good options available to the French.

                                                                                                                                                OTL the Russians were expecting up to 25 German divisions in the east and in this scenario the Germans initially deploying only two armies is consistent with this, so Russian plans will almost certainly follow OTL resulting in the loss of the Russian 1st and 2nd Armies. I would envisage additional German armies arriving in the east in early/mid September 1914 after the initial French offensives have been defeated and French offensive potential gauged.

                                                                                                                                                Even if the Germans initially deployed four armies east, it is not certain the Russians would recognize the increased German presence early enough to change their plans or if the scale of the German presence would represent a sufficient threat to the Russians to change their offensive strategy. The Russians were relatively confident and were more likely to assign additional armies to the northern front than abandon the offensive altogether. The early removal of the Russian 1st and 2nd armies changes the eastern chessboard significantly.

                                                                                                                                                Trajen777

                                                                                                                                                The French certainly had a qualitative and quantitative advantage in light artillery, but the Germans were ultimately better equipped with medium and heavy artillery, which outranged their French equivalents. Glenn239 has already noted German shovel technology, which OTL proved rather effective at negating light artillery. Further, under the existing French doctrine the use of artillery was strictly optional (i.e. the absence of artillery support and/or better intelligence were not seen as valid reasons to delay an offensive) and the role of artillery during such offensives was limited to conserve ammunition.

                                                                                                                                                The obvious flaws in the French doctrine would eventually be remedied, but in the initial weeks the French would be slaughtered. Even with a decent doctrine, the French lacked the heavy artillery and howitzers to effectively deal with entrenched defenders.

                                                                                                                                                The French were an extremely well equipped and trained continental army, but despite an obsessively offensive mindset, the French lacked the doctrines and equipment (specifically heavy artillery and howitzers) to deal with entrenched defenders. The French army was well funded and had a history of innovation, from Poudre Bto fast firing artillery and in 1914 held a significant edge in army aviation. The French would have wiped the floor with any continental power, except the Germans who were the best trained, best equipped and had the least bad doctrines. The OTL German blunders could often be attributable to reserve officers using their initiative and not necessarily following the best practice espoused under existing German doctrine.

                                                                                                                                                The reason I rate Joffre so poorly is because he took over a first class French army and introduced ill conceived offensive doctrines that almost destroyed the French army in 1914. He gets bonus points for influencing the Russians to do likewise. Neither Cadorna nor Conrad had the resources to squander to the same extent. Notwithstanding the above, I appreciate you have identified political/ environmental factors that might have influenced Joffre's decisions and limited his options. In OTL the Anglo-French forces inflicted a costly defeat on the Germans at Marne and forced the Germans to defend a border from Switzerland to the English Channel, but still the Russians made demands and threats that more should be done in the west to keep the Germans occupied. With a condensed western front, I don't think there is an easy way to satisfy Russian expectations.

                                                                                                                                                I am still curious about your thoughts on Joffre's desire for an Ardennes offensive and the timing related thereto. FYI - I'm skeptical about the French preparation (prima facie limited to Joffre's private etchings) and underlying Ardennes terrain/infrastructure, but still believe there would have been no good options available to the French.

                                                                                                                                                OTL the Russians were expecting up to 25 German divisions in the east and in this scenario the Germans initially deploying only two armies is consistent with this, so Russian plans will almost certainly follow OTL resulting in the loss of the Russian 1st and 2nd Armies. I would envisage additional German armies arriving in the east in early/mid September 1914 after the initial French offensives have been defeated and French offensive potential gauged
                                                                                                                                                Even if the Germans initially deployed four armies east, it is not certain the Russians would recognize the increased German presence early enough to change their plans or if the scale of the German presence would represent a sufficient threat to the Russians to change their offensive strategy. The Russians were relatively confident and were more likely to assign additional armies to the northern front than abandon the offensive altogether. The early removal of the Russian 1st and 2nd armies changes the eastern chessboard significantly.

                                                                                                                                                Agree 100% :
                                                                                                                                                1. The Germans in the west had plunging HA - the french 75 (which made up most of their artillery) and with the Germans dug in (and with the rolling hills of AL ) they could do very little to support their infantry. I read an excellent book (cant put hands on it) showing that the French and Brits did many plunging fire HA pieces till 1917. the modern French HA
                                                                                                                                                2. As to the Russian advance the 1st and 2nd would still advance (with the forming 10th and 4th armies), as would the French in AL. This was the plan, both advanced on offensive. The plan was to force the Germans to defend on both fronts. The Russian advance because of the terrain forced the 1st and 2nd to advance on either side of the M lakes. The Germans had run many many war games there. The plan would be to destroy one army before the other army could advance to support the first army. The Russian plan would have been more effective if :
                                                                                                                                                A. The 2 generals did not hate each other
                                                                                                                                                b. The Group commander over both of them had been more active and driven each commander to advance quickly
                                                                                                                                                c. The logistics were in place and radio silence had been maintained (codes )
                                                                                                                                                So no matter what the 1st and 2nd would advance in the same way over the same ground and if anything it would have been 2 armies destroyed (almost happens at B of Gunn) .
                                                                                                                                                I don't think the Germans would have sent 4 armies east (when the kaiser asked the logistics dept if the German army could be deployed east vs the Sch plan the answer was YES but only 3 at first). They would have one weaker one to cover Belgium and 4 vs the French with 2 - 3 east. The reduced losses would have allowed the German 9th and 10th armies to form faster. Even through the POD calls for defence on both sides i think the Germans would have taken Poland and at least part of Lith to push the Russians away from Silesia .


                                                                                                                                                Battles - The Battle of Haelen, 1914

                                                                                                                                                The Battle of Haelen, known as 'The Battle of the Silver Helmets' in Belgian folklore and fought on 12 August 1914, comprised the first cavalry action of the war.

                                                                                                                                                It was fought at a river crossing at Haelen in Belgium, around 30km from the main Belgian line at Louvain. The significance of the engagement lay chiefly in its being the first cavalry attack of the war, although the Belgian army's success in driving back repeated German cavalry charges all day on the 12th was also worthy of note.

                                                                                                                                                It was also one of the few setbacks encountered by the Germans during their successful invasion of neutral Belgium. Advance squadrons of Georg von der Marwitz's cavalry corps proved unable to defeat a single Belgian cavalry division under de Witte guarding the Haelen bridge, despite numerous attempts with sabres and lances from early in the morning.

                                                                                                                                                De Witte repulsed the German cavalry attacks by ordering his men (which included a company of cyclists and another of pioneer engineers) to dismount and meet the attack with massed rifle fire, which succeeded in inflicting significant casualties upon the Germans.

                                                                                                                                                Although the Belgian success was hailed by some as a huge setback to German ambitions - it wasn't - it did provide an early demonstration of the modern-day irrelevance of the cavalry in offensive situations.

                                                                                                                                                In all the Germans suffering 150 dead, 600 wounded and some 200-300 prisoners the number of dead horses was placed at around 400. Belgian losses totalled approximately 500.

                                                                                                                                                Click here to view a map charting the progress of the German invasion of Belgium in August 1914.


                                                                                                                                                Aftermath

                                                                                                                                                The Germans occupied almost the whole of Belgium. Antwerp fell in early October, but Belgian forces held on to a strip of the Flanders coast in the Battle of the Yser later that month. The Germans placed Belgium under military government. In 1916-17, Belgians were deported to work in German factories. Belgian resistance workers who spied on German troop movements or aided escaping Allied prisoners of war were executed. Many Belgians also suffered from malnutrition, despite food aid from the United States. Flemish separatism was encouraged by the Germans, and the annexation of Belgium became a German war aim.


                                                                                                                                                Watch the video: WWII - Wehrmacht - Die letzte deutsche Kavallerie 2 - 1940 Nederland - last german cavalry