George Hardie

George Hardie



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George Hardie, the younger brother of James Keir Hardie, was born in Scotland in 1874. After leaving school he became an engineer.

Hardie also joined the Independent Labour Party and began working closely with other socialists in Glasgow including John Wheatley, Emanuel Shinwell, James Maxton, David Kirkwood, Campbell Stephen, William Gallacher, John Muir, Tom Johnston, Jimmie Stewart, Neil Maclean, George Buchanan and James Welsh.

In the 1922 General Election Hardie was elected to the House of Commons for Springburn. Also successful were several other militant socialists based in Glasgow including David Kirkwood, John Wheatley, Emanuel Shinwell, James Maxton, John Muir, Tom Johnston, Jimmie Stewart, Campbell Stephen, Neil Maclean, George Buchanan and James Welsh.

Hardie was defeated in the 1931 General Election but was re-elected in November 1935. George Hardie died on 26th July 1937.

From the outside circumference of the city to its very heart, Glasgow was ringing with the message of Socialism. Within a week of the election day, it seemed likely that the whole team of eleven would win, that Bonar Law would be defeated, and that Socialism would be triumphant. Such energy, enthusiasm, and earnestness had not been known in Glasgow for generations. There we were, men who a few years before had been scorned, some of us in jail and many more of us very near it, now being the men to whom the people pinned their faith.

When, at last, the results were announced, every member of the team was elected - except our champion of the Central Division. What a troop we were! John Wheatley, cool and calculating and fearless ; James Maxton, whose wooing speaking and utter selflessness made people regard him as a saint and martyr ; wee Jimmie Stewart, so small, so sober, and yet so determined ; Neil MacLean, full of fire without fury; Thomas Johnston, with a head as full of facts as an egg's full o' meat ; George Hardie, engineer and chemist and brother of Keir Hardie; George Buchanan, patternmaker, who knew the human side of poverty better than any of us; James Welsh, miner and poet from Coatbridge, John W. Muir, an heroic and gallant gentleman; and old Bob Smillie, returned for an English constituency though he was born in Ireland and reared in Scotland.

We believed that this people, this British folk, could and were willing to make friends with all other peoples. We were ready to abandon all indemnities and all reparations, to remove all harassing restrictions imposed by the Peace Treaties. We were all Puritans. We were all abstainers. Most of us did not smoke. We were the stuff of which reform is made.


George Hardie - History

George Hardie has more than 20 years of experience in the wind industry, he has been responsible for the development or acquisition of more than a dozen projects in the United States, United Kingdom and Central America, totaling more than 2,000 MW. At Pattern Development, he has been the lead developer or originator of many of the company’s largest projects including Hatchet Ridge and Spring Valley. He has also led the acquisition of several projects including two in Canada’s Ontario Province (Armow and K2) totaling 450 MW, as well as the 300 MW Finavera Portfolio of wind projects in British Columbia and, most recently, the acquisition of the 200 MW Logan’s Gap Project in Texas and the 150 MW Fowler Ridge IV project in Indiana.

George founded his first wind company, International Wind Companies, in 1991. He and his investors sold the company to the Zilkha family in 1998, which was subsequently renamed Zilkha Renewable Energy. George stayed on as President and CEO for almost 4 years, establishing the team that made Zilkha one of the fastest growing renewable energy companies in the world and paving the way for Goldman Sachs to acquire the company two years later. In 2003, George left Zilkha to start a new company, G3 Energy, which was subsequently acquired by Babcock & Brown in late 2005. G3 Energy projects that were successfully financed, constructed and operated include the 38 MW Buena Vista Repowering Project in California’s Altamont Pass and the 150 MW Spring Valley Project in Nevada, which was awarded the 2012 Powergen Magazine US Wind Project of the Year.

George holds a bachelor’s degree in Business Administration from Southern Methodist University. After graduating from SMU, he played professional tennis for six years playing in 16 Grand Slam events and achieving a career-high world ranking of number 80.


Prof Emeritus George Hardie

Prof George Hardie produced the artwork for Led Zeppelin’s debut album (1969). As a partner at NTA Studios, he designed many iconic record covers with the design group Hipgnosis, working on Pink Floyd’s "Dark Side of the Moon" (1973) and "Wish You Were Here" (1975), the beginning of a highly successful career.

Prof George Hardie produced the artwork for Led Zeppelin’s debut album (1969). As a partner at NTA Studios, he designed many iconic record covers with the design group Hipgnosis, working on Pink Floyd’s "Dark Side of the Moon" (1973) and "Wish You Were Here" (1975), the beginning of a highly successful career.

Sitting next to a counsellor one night I was asked: 'What do you do?' I replied that I was a freelance designer, perhaps more of an illustrator, and that I taught and lectured in art schools. She told me that these were really just titles, and asked, 'What do you really do?' A month later I re-titled a lecture about working methods 'Noticing things and getting things noticed' – which is what I really try to do."

(George Hardie - Conference paper (précis). 'Drawing-the Process', Kingston University 2003, published)

Professor George Hardie was born in 1944 and trained at St Martin’s and the Royal College of Art (RCA). A renowned graphic designer, illustrator and educator, he has received many international commissions from a wide variety of clients (from 14 countries to date). George Hardie became a Professor of Graphic Design in 1990. He currently teaches on postgraduate courses. He was elected to the Alliance Graphique Internationale in 1994 and is now its International Secretary. In 2005 was elected a Royal Designer for Industry.

Whilst at the RCA, Hardie produced the artwork for Led Zeppelin’s debut album (1969). After graduation, as a partner at NTA Studios, he designed many iconic record covers with the design group Hipgnosis. He worked on the Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon (1973) and Wish You Were Here (1975), 10cc’s How Dare You (1976), Black Sabbath’s Technical Ecstasy (1976) and Led Zeppelin’s Presence (1976). His work has been exhibited extensively: with one-person retrospectives at Brighton, Barcelona and most recently in Ljublijana (2008) and exhibitions of his books at the Pentagram Gallery and in Nagoya. He has gained widespread notice through work for the Royal Mail. He won a D&AD silver award for his Millennium stamp, and designed the Channel Tunnel stamps for the Royal Mail and La Poste (1994) and the illustrations for the Magic stamps (2007).

George uses an inventive combination of mixed-media and collage techniques, experimenting with perspective and geometry, and is particularly respected for his ability to solve visual problems through careful observation and crafting of graphic solutions. His adaptability and success with both commissioned and non-commissioned work has also been remarked upon. His Manual (2005) is a limited edition work about hands, which acts as a handbook of batch production and ‘hand-made’ techniques.

George enjoys teaching at the University of Brighton where he has learnt only to set problems to which he doesn’t know the answer. His experience of teaching abroad has made him relish working in an educational system that is based on the premise that the teacher is always wrong.

Hardie’s research expertise involves graphic communication. His aspiration ‘to notice things and get things noticed’, which covers both making work and teaching, involves the telling of stories (Visual Narrative), disciplined gathering and categorisation of ideas and objects (Collecting as a design tool), understanding and inventing restrictions, involving audiences. (Rules and Games, Extended metaphors). In relation to rules and games, Hardie quotes Robert Frost ”I’d as soon write free verse as play tennis with the net down.”

He has been lucky in, and endlessly informed by, working for eighteen years on a course that is based on telling stories by any means: a course cleverly written by old friends and colleagues and excellently taught by new friends and colleagues. The University of Brighton has provided him with an academic home, and base for operations, for some 22 years.


George Hardie

George Hardie, Mayor of Strathfield 1885

George Hardie served on Strathfield Council from 1885 to 1886. He was elected in 1885 as the first Mayor of Strathfield. George Hardie is described as ‘mining agent, Torrington Rd’ in Government Gazette of 1885, however he was a partner in Hardie & Gorman, a prominent Sydney real estate agency. George Hardie lived at ‘Torrington’ in Torrington Rd [formerly Woodgreen Rd], Strathfield.

George Hardie, one of six children, was born on 17th. September 1845 to the Rev. Charles Hardie and his wife Jane nee Hitchcock, His father was at the time serving as a missionary for the London Missionary Society at Upolu, on Samoa, one of the islands then known as the Navigators. George was sent to England to be educated, at a very early age. He attended a school for the sons of missionaries, called ‘Silcoates’ at Wakeford in Yorkshire. After completing twenty years as missionaries in Samoa from 1835 to 1855, his parents returned to England. George migrated to Australia in 1866 and was later joined by his brother Robert and other members of the family.

George and his wife Amy were married on 5th. July 1873, starting married life in Rose Bay. Here Ida, the first of seven children, was born in 1874, Later they moved to Strathfield where they built ‘Torrington’. George’s parents were married in the Parish Church in the district of Greater Torrington, Devon. Six years after arriving in Australia, George together with his brother Robert and Henry Gorman, founded the firm Hardie & Gorman, Real Estate Agents and Auctioneers. They also acted as mining brokers. The firm Hardie & Gorman was largely responsible for opening the Strathfield area as a residential neighbourhood.

George and his family resided for approximately ten years in Strathfield. He took an active part in local government, being first Mayor of Strathfield in 1885. He was also a co-founder of the Mercantile Mutual Insurance Go,, founded in 1877 and a keen follower of cricket, being a founder member of the Sydney Cricket Ground. Being a successful business man, he retired at the age of 41 years and returned to England with his family, where he took up residence in Barnet and died there aged 71 years on May 4 1916. [Nancy Hardie, Strathfield’s First Mayor – George Hardie, SDHS Newsletter, Vol.21 No.5 May 1998]

Hardie’s term on Council was terminated in his first year of service as the relevant Act required two alderman to retire at the end of the first year and he was one of the two after lots were drawn [SDHS vol. 4 no. 7 June 1982]. Hardie was the returning officer for the 1886 Council election. About this time, Hardie decided to return to England and his property ‘Torrington’ was transferred to his brother Robert W. Hardie and Henry Gorman of the firm Hardie & Gorman, Estate Agents & Auctioneers.

Robert William Hardie was Mayor of Burwood [1887] and lived at ‘Ilfracombe’ in Park Rd Burwood. Henry Gorman was also a resident of Strathfield and lived at ‘Merley’ in Albert Rd Strathfield.

Hardie, N., ‘Strathfield’s First Mayor – George Hardie’, SDHS Newsletter, vol. 21 no. 5 May 1998


George Hardie Exhibition

At a dinner party some years ago a fellow guest asked George Hardie what he did for a living. The acclaimed English Illustrator, Professor of Graphic Design, replied, “I’m an illustrator, designer, and teacher.” Unsatisfied, his table mate pressed, “No, what do you really do?” Hardie is an unflaggingly polite, but most of all, modest, English gentleman. So, after a lengthy pause he responded, “I notice things and I get things noticed,” a fairly unassuming assessment of a five-decade-old career as, he semi-ironically claims, that of a ‘jobbing illustrator.’
– The rules of the game, Daniel Nadel, Eye no. 58 vol. 15, 2005

George’s work is visible world wide, anyone with a poster or an album cover of Pink Floyd or Led Zeppelin is likely to be looking at one of his designs. Regularly among the world’s top ten favorite album covers is his prism for Dark Side of The Moon (designed with and for Hipgnosis) also his phallic Zeppelin crash for Led Zeppelin’s 1969 debut album. His work has been exhibited widely with exhibitions that have included one-person retrospective at Brighton, Barcelona and Ljubljana. His books have been shown at The Pentagram Gallery in London and in Nagoya, Japan. George Hardie has enjoyed a 51-year-long career, one which includes many international commissions from a wide variety of clients. He gained widespread notice through his stamp designs for the Royal Mail including Channel Tunnel stamps for the Royal Mail and La Poste in 1994. He also created illustrations for the Magic stamps produced in 2005. George has been awarded by D&AD, the global association for Creative Advertising & Design: four 1970s D&AD silver awards with Hipgnosis, and a fifth silver award for his Millennium stamp. He was elected a Member of the Art Workers Guild (1997) and subsequently became Master of the Guild and a Royal Designer for Industry.

George Hardie was the tutor of the exhibition designers and curators, on the Masters course at the University of Brighton from 2007–2009. These being the last years as head of the masters course and his teaching career, they were quite blessed with getting to work so closely with him and acquiring a great awareness of their role as thinkers, makers, and designers. The designers had been wanting, for a while, to have the space to present his work to audiences outside of the UK to show the great breathe and range of his other less famous works so that they too could get some recognition just as his work for music album covers has had. For them, George Hardie is an essential artist in the history of British graphic design. A humble/modest/discreet English gentleman, endowed with great finesse of mind and remarkable kindness, George is also a great collector of everything and anything, to the great despair of his wife Avril. His work unfolds like his collections: by associations of ideas and forms.

The exhibition has been categorized in 13 sections that allow one to discover the great variety, thoroughness, and facetiousness thanks to an abundant graphic vocabulary that George has developed for more than 50 years. There are 217 pieces of work gathered in this exhibition. For the scenography, the designers color coded the sections, choosing colors that George uses most often a birds eye view of the room show you that the central picture rail forms a ‘G.’ A wink to George’s signature, which he often slips in his productions and which takes the shape of the staircase which leads to his studio of work. The exhibition poster is also a tribute to the isometric style of George’s work while playing with the concept of movement. They wanted the exhibition to take up the basics of George’s work: form, volume, color, multiple levels of reading …

George Hardie Exhibition

Exhibition design and curation: Maison des éditions and work in process

Poster design: Benjamin Lahitte

When?
The exhibition is in a summer break and will continue from 26.08.2020–12.09.2020

Where?

Le Bel Ordinaire
Les Abattoirs
Allée Montesquieu
64140 Billère
France


Hardie was born in Chichester, West Sussex, England. He attended the prestigious St Martin's and the Royal College of Art in London, before working as a designer for Nicholas Thirkell Associates (NTA), in addition to partnering with Storm Thorgerson and Aubrey Powell of Hipgnosis. [1] The abstract graphics of Hardie's output marked a distinct contrast with the heightened photographic surrealism of the work of other members of the Hipgnosis group. [2] Amongst Hardie's folio of album covers includes the famous prism on Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon (1973) chosen from three of his designs, the album Wish You Were Here (1975), Genesis' The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway (1974), Black Sabbath's Technical Ecstasy (1976), and Yes' Going for the One (1977), often working with the handicap of having no access to the unreleased music contained within. [3]

He was also commissioned to design the sleeve of Led Zeppelin's eponymous debut album by manager Peter Grant, in October 1968. Hardie had previously worked on Jeff Beck's album Truth, whom Grant had also managed, and his original concept was to have a sequential image of a Zeppelin with clouds and waves. [4] Guitarist Jimmy Page wasn't entirely convinced and asked him to swap the design to a single facsimile image of the Hindenburg (LZ-129) going down in flames. Hardie's original concept however was later reused in part, on the inner gatefold sleeve of the next album, Led Zeppelin II. His designs were also used on Presence (1976), and the soundtrack album The Song Remains the Same (1976).

Outside of the music industry, Hardie was also commissioned to design postage stamps for the Royal Mail. He has taught postgraduate students of graphic design at the Faculty of Arts and Architecture, University of Brighton, since 1990. In 1994, he became a member of the Alliance Graphique Internationale (AGI), for which he now presides as International Secretary. Hardie was elected as a Royal Designer for Industry in 2005. [5]


Original Artwork for Led Zeppelin’s Debut Album Headed to Auction

The original artwork on the cover of Led Zeppelin's 1969 debut album by George Hardie is headed to auction at Christie's in June.

The original artwork on the cover of Led Zeppelin’s 1969 self-titled debut album will be auctioned off via Christie’s during a sale scheduled for June 2nd through 18th.

The cover was designed by George Hardie and based on photographer Sam Shere’s famous 1937 photograph of the Hindenburg disaster. It’s estimated to fetch between $20,000 to $30,000, and Christie’s senior specialist of Books and Manuscripts, Peter Klarnet, tells Rolling Stone, “In terms of rarity, this is a unique object &mdash I don’t think you can get rarer than that.”

Hardie designed the piece while he was a graduate student at the Royal College of Art in London after his friend, the photographer Stephen Goldblatt, had recommended him to Zeppelin. After rejecting Hardie’s first few cover ideas, guitarist Jimmy Page suggested he do something with Shere’s Hindenburg picture. For his take on the photo, Hardie used tracing paper to recreate the image in stipple &mdash a style of drawing using small dots &mdash to give it the same feel as a low-resolution newspaper photo.

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Led Zeppelin reportedly paid Hardie just £60 for his work, although when he uncovered the original stipple tracing years later it had a note attached to it that read, “George’s pension fund.”

“The historical significance of this album cover cannot be understated,” Klarnet says. “It marked a major turning point in the history of pop music, heralded by the debut of Led Zeppelin. It was louder, bolder than what had come before and would come to define the shape of hard rock for generations. This simple rendering of the Hindenburg exploding over Lakehurst stands as a monument to that important historical moment. And the image has endured in a way that most other album covers have not &mdash it very much has taken on a life of its own.”

Hardie would go on to design album covers for bands like Pink Floyd, Black Sabbath and Wings, often as part of the London-based design group Hipgnosis. Klarnet says Hardie’s Led Zeppelin cover “certainly helped him establish what became a long and successful career in the field. Yet in his mind, it was only a simple tracing of a photograph &mdash and little more. Yet, the manner in which he traced the Hindenburg photograph, he managed to re-work it in a way that both evoked the past while simultaneously projecting what was to come. It’s because of its simplicity that it became an extremely powerful image that in many regards transcends what Sam Shere captured in the original photograph.”


Posts Tagged ‘george hardie’

It is often touted as the best album of all time, and has become so ingrained as part of popular culture that it&rsquos hard to believe that the concept for Pink Floyd&rsquos The Dark Side of the Mooncover was actually born out of a simple textbook illustration.

The Iconic Dark Side of the Moon Album Cover

We were lucky enough to have the album&rsquos original illustrator, George Hardie, visit us at our offices where we chatted about the album.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the iconic design has its routes in a chance 1968 meeting in a photographic darkroom at the Royal College of Art in London. It was then that George first met Storm Thorgerson and Aubrey Powell &ndash the creative minds behind now legendary design studio, Hipgnosis.

Over the year, Hipgnosis produced artwork for some of the most influential bands of the era including Led Zeppelin, Genesis and Black Sabbath, but it was the bold graphic design for The Dark Side of the Moon which thrust the studio&rsquos work into the public eye when it hit record stores in March 1973.

Until this point, much of Hipgnosis&rsquo work had been photographic. But under the direction of Pink Floyd&rsquos keyboardist Richard Wright to produce something &ldquosimple, clinical and precise&rdquo their ideas took on a new dimension. The breakthrough moment was provided by Storm Thorgerson who remembered an illustration from a photography book showing the process of light refraction through a glass prism &ldquoAn inspirational image in itself&rdquo as George recalls. The concept seemed particularly fitting for Pink Floyd who were famous for their use of light shows.

Dark Side of the Moon Album Cover artist, George Hardie

&ldquoSlightly re-arranging the illustration, I drew a line artwork and indicated colours using percentages of magenta, cyan, yellow and black from a printer&rsquos chart &ndash the simplest way of making this kind of line artwork where the lines act as the edges of each colour and the printer fills in the colours.&rdquo explains Hardie. The prism was airbrushed, black on white, and reversed out of a mechanical printer&rsquos black background to produce the final effect.

After its release, The Dark Side of the Moon went to number one on the US Billboard chart for one week, but it ended up staying in the charts for a consecutive 741 weeks from 1973 to 1988 &ndash longer than any other album in history.

The band were suddenly propelled from the underground into the mainstream. With an estimated 45 million copies sold, it became Pink Floyd&rsquos most commercially successful album and is frequently ranked as one of the greatest rock albums of all time. The white beam of light passing through a prism to form the bright colours of the spectrum against a stunning black background invited listeners to discover the music inside, and it still does today.

Own the Dark Side of the Moon Framed Edition

Now you can own this definitive piece of Pink Floyd memorabilia &ndash a remastered copy of The Dark Side of the Moon vinyl professionally framed and signed by the original album artist, George Hardie himself.


Before Poker Was Cool, Part 1: Jack Binion and Steve Wynn

Before Chris Moneymaker and what we know as the modern age of poker, there were several gentlemen who elevated the game before poker was cool. It’s debatable who did the most for poker, but it’s undeniable that it’s close. I was lucky enough to have a personal relationship with four of these legends, and I actually worked for two. My connection with these four men helped shape my career, and I will always be indebted to all of them.

Jack Binion, while president of the Horseshoe Casino, showcased poker twice a year and made it his main marketing tool with the Poker Hall of Fame and the World Series of Poker. He hired Poker Hall of Famer Eric Drache. Drache, in turn, worked with Jack McClellan as his tournament director. Together these three grew poker every year and made the WSOP the premier poker tournament in the world.

In the early days, I found myself short of money. I told my friend Ray Hall I wanted to play a tournament, but I was broke. He said, “Go see Jack Binion, tell him you’re a poker player, and you’re broke.” I thought this was unusual, but what did I have to lose? I went to Jack and explained my situation. He replied, “Go to the cage and tell them I said to give you $2,500.” He took a poker player at his word and gave him a bankroll, no questions asked. That’s how it was in those days. We were like a big family.

When he was trying to grow the WSOP to a hundred players in 1982, there were only 96 players signed up. I had not won a satellite to get in the Main Event that year. Another friend of mine said Jack Binion wants to get it to 100. Tell him you’re not in. I went to Jack, and he said he would put me in the tournament. There were 4 of us he put in to reach his goal. This is a man who put his money where mouth is. How could you not love a guy like this? I like to call these the Golden Days, and it was all because of Jack Binion who continued his father Benny’s legacy.

Jack hired PR firms to promote the WSOP, had professional photographers document it and provided free rooms and food for poker players for years. He surrounded himself with his closest friends who happened to be poker players. His love of the game and the people who played it changed poker forever.

Steve Wynn needs no introduction. I went to work for Steve around 1977 as a poker host at the Golden Nugget. He had just put in the most beautiful poker room in Las Vegas. Before that, card rooms were just an afterthought in most casinos. The two major poker rooms in the late 70’s were the Stardust and the Golden Nugget. The Golden Nugget had a better reputation for poker than the Stardust for two reasons: one was Bill Boyd, a legend in the poker industry, who was the poker room manager at the Golden Nugget and two, the Stardust had an underworld reputation.

In the early 80’s the Stardust expanded poker and hired a tournament director named Bob Thompson who created the Stairway to the Stars and gave Steve a run for the money. Not to be outdone, Steve created the Grand Prix of Poker. This friendly competition caused Steve to create one of the best poker tournaments in the world at the time.

Not only did Steve have to outshine the Stardust, he had to outdo his friend Jack Binion. He decided to give away prizes for the best all-around players. One year he gave away a large boat. The next year he gave away a Corvette.

Steve was the first one to bring poker and Hollywood together. He brought glamor to the game. Like Jack, he surrounded himself with poker players. His president at the time was Bobby Baldwin. Steve did something else no one else had ever done before or since–he put on a fashion show for the wives that was second to none. He spared no cost on the production.

But there is one thing I will never forget. Before the main event of the Grand Prix, he turned off all the lights in the casino. Giant screens came down from the ceiling, and he showed video highlights from the series. Steve is a showman, and he continued this tradition at the Mirage when he put poker dead center in the casino and made it a showplace.

Binion and Wynn had taken poker to the next level. Everyone has been playing catch up ever since. In Part 2 I will write about George Hardie and Lyle Berman who added their own flair to the game.

Robert Turner is a legendary poker player and casino and billiard marketing expert. Robert is most well- known for introducing the game of Omaha poker to Nevada in 1982 and to California in 1986. He created Live at the Bike, the first live gaming site broadcast on the Internet in 2002, and he also created Legends of Poker for the Bicycle Casino and the National Championship of Poker for Hollywood Park Casino both in 1995.

In the year 2000, he created World Team Poker, the first professional league for poker. He has spent over 30 years in casino marketing and player development and has served as an executive host at the Bicycle Casino and MGM. He is currently working with his new companies Crown Digital Games developing mobile apps and Vision Poker, a poker marketing and managing group.


LOWER EAST SIDE STREET NECROLOGY

The Lower East Side of Manhattan, roughly defined by Houston Street on the north, the East River on the east and south, and by the Manhattan Bridge and the Bowery on the west, known in story and song as a teeming, bustling magnet for immigrants in the 19h and 20th Centuries, actually has a long and varied history. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, it was primarily countryside and farmland the it attracted ship captains and wealthy landowners such as Rutgers and Delancey, whose names still are prominent on local street signs and then came wave after wave of immigrants, first the Irish, escaping the potato famine and British repression in the 1860s…then the Germans in such numbers that the area became known as Kleindeutschland…and finally Eastern Europeans, many of them Jewish, starting in earnest in the mid-1880s, escaping repression in their homelands.

The tenement, as in other parts of New York City, was the dominant form of housing with hundreds of people occupying the same building, in some cases. Crowding, freezing cold in winter, and stifling heat in summer were the norm. Reform came only slowly.

Beginning in the 1930s, whole blocks began to be razed as ‘slum clearance’ gave way to housing projects, and an entire neighborhood was transformed. Entire streets disappeared too, and we’ll try to name them all here.

Gouverneur Hospital, at Gouverneur Slip and Water Street, is one of the few pre-war structures south of Henry Street and east of Rutgers Street that has survived. The former hospital was built in 1901 by McKim, Mead and White. The new Gouverneur Hospital on Madison Street was built in 1972.

Gouverneur Street and Slip are not named for any New York governors, but for Abraham Gouverneur, a French immigrant who became a merchant and political activist.

This map, prepared for the Federal Writers Project in 1936, shows what streets remained on the Lower East Side in those days. Housing projects would claim many of them by the 1950s.

SOUTH OF GRAND

Before the name change, George Street at the East River was a red light district.

James Monroe was originally buried in the Marble Cemetery on Second Street, but the body was disinterred and moved to his native Virginia.

Much of Jefferson Street has been replaced by the LaGuardia Houses.

Scammel Street’s former route is marked by a walkway in the Vladeck Park Houses.

A couple of views of Scammel Street before the housing project replaced it.

NORTH OF GRAND

Cannon Street, now just an echo of its former self, exists as an alley between Delancey and Broome west of Lewis Street. It has survived because it faces a public school that was not razed in ‘slum clearances’ that began in the 1930s.

Forgotten Fan Peter Sefton recalls this old neighborhood of teeming tenements and bustling businesses:

I was struck by your reference to Cannon Street, where my great-grandparents were married at the long-vanished St. Rose of Lima Church. My family comes from the warren of dead streets just north of the Williamsburg Bridge, which were named after old-time Londoners like Mangin and Goerck. My grandfather was born at our ancestral coalyard-tenement on the long amputated foot of Rivington, just a hundred yards from the old city manure and Knickerbocker Ice Company docks at Piers 60 and 61. His block was between Tompkins, now the southbound slow lane of the FDR, and Mangin, today just a stub of a street that passes under the approach to the bridge. His mother came from the block of Goerck between Delancy and Rivington, which is also part of the green lawn at Baruch Holmes today.

This 1940s-era Hagstrom map shows the Lower East side north of Grand Street. Much of this map has utterly changed since the Fifties.

In about 1905 the firm of Dannat and Pell was at the foot of Grand street and the East River. The then-brand new Williamsburg Bridge dominates the scene.Photo courtesy Peter Sefton

The FDR Drive and the Corlears Hook Houses occupy the site today.

Tompkins Street, like Tompkins Square Park in the East Village and busy Tompkins Avenue in Staten Island, was named for Daniel Tompkins, three-term New York State Governor (1807-1817) and Vice President under James Monroe (1817-1825).

Tompkins built Victory Boulevard (first called Richmond Turnpike) and instituted the first ferry service between Staten Island and New York City.
What’s there now? FDR Drive

Mangin Street is one of the few streets in NYC in which the surveyor named a street for himself. Joseph François Mangin, a French immigrant, was a surveyor and architect who had a hand in New York’s City Hall as well as the Park Theatre on Park Row, which stood until the late 1840s, and the old State Prison at what is now West and Christopher Streets, which stood from 1797 to 1827.

In 1803, Mangin, with partner Casimir Goerck, submitted a city plan for Manhattan to the Common Council of New York City. The ambitious plan straightened crooked paths and evened out the shoreline. Mangin audaciously named streets for himself and Goerck. Ultimately, Mangin’s plan was passed over, in 1811, in favor of another one by John Randel, Jr. That plan is the familiar grid of numbered avenues and streets we have today.
What’s there now? The Corlears Hook Houses, now the ILGWU Cooperative Village (south of Delancey) and the Baruch Houses (north of Delancey)

The city has recently marked a very short section of Mangin Street between the two sections of Delancey Street below the Williamsburg Bridge.

Goerck Street was the epicenter of Lower East Side tenement living in the early days of the 20th Century. Conditions were crowded, bleak and depressing in the teeming district. Forgotten Fan Peter Sefton passes along an incident on Goerck Street, on which his family lived in the mid-1890s:

A curious group of eviction cases grew out of the determination of one Elias Russ, owning the tenement house at No.6 Goerck Street, to demand fifty cents a month extra rent for every baby on the premises after the beginning of March, 1905. The building was occupied by 30 families, who boasted of 150 children. The tenants refused to pay the increase. Dispossess writs were served. Mrs. Frederick Friedmann, one of the tenants, loudly cried: “What is it you would do? Should I turn my firstborn, Isaac, into the street, stab Rachael, strangle Moses, shoot Rebecca, drown Mira, poison Nathan, throw Lizzie from the roof, or hug the twin babies to death? Oh! monster of a man! ” The tenants, with many of their children, went in a body before Justice Worcester of the Thirteenth Municipal District Court to protest. Mrs. Fannie Frank became one of the spokesmen and declared, “The landlord is against the Scriptures which bid men multiply.” The justice gave the tenants only a stay until the following Monday, by which time they were to decide either to pay the increased rent demanded or to find other premises.

Author and playwright Bella Spewack, best known for the book of the Broadway smash Kiss Me, Kate, grew up in a series of tenements on the Lower East Side. She recalls Goerck Street in her memoir of the early 1900s, Streets:

I went several times to Goerck Street before we moved, compelled by fear and dread. It was a “tough” block. From there would come every offensive in the bottle fights that would visit Lewis, Cannon, Columbia, and Sheriff streets like some short, nasty pestilence. Bottle fights included every kind of weapon some of the Goerck Street gangs used to throw rusty blades.

As a very little girl I would dare myself at night to go to Goerck Street and never get any further than the corner. Ours was and still is one of a row of red four-story houses, a fifth story being based on the stoop. There was a constant going and coming of moving vans and pushcarts ­ one family moved into one house and moved out of the next. The houses formed a drably indifferent village that on rainy days looked like a row of washed-out, badly patched petticoats….

A small piece of Baruch Place is still in place, forming an arc with Mangin Street just south of Houston Street and the FDR Drive.
What’s there now? The Corlears Hook Houses, now the ILGWU Cooperative Village (south of Delancey) and the Baruch Houses (north of Delancey)

A small part of Cannon Street remains between Broome Street and Delancey (see picture above).
What’s there now? FDR Drive

Bella Spewack:

“On the other side of Houston Street, a street of noble width, Cannon Street narrows and narrows until it is but the wink of a blind man’s eye: Manhattan Street.”

What’s there now? The Lillian Wald Houses

Manhattan Street is preserved as a driveway adjacent to PS 188.

“Manhattan St.” on side of PS188

The old corner of Broome and Sheriff is punctuated by the remains of a bishops crook lamppost.

Sheriff Street appears on maps as early as 1797. It most likely takes its name from Colonel Marinus Willett, who was Sheriff of New York from 1784-88 and later Mayor (1807).

What’s there now? Similar to Mangin St., a short stretch of Sheriff (above) is still there under the Williamsburg Bridge. The Amalgamated Dwellings (1930) (south of Delancey) and the Masaryk Towers (north of Delancey).

One of the earliest and most innovative projects in the area, the Amalgamated Dwellings were the brainchild of Abraham Kazan, president of the United Housing Foundation, on behalf of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union.

Kazan has had a section of Columbia Street, between Grand and Delancey Street, renamed for him.

Other streets in the area have been greatly shortened by the construction of housing projects over the years.

PS188, surrounded by newer housing projects, preserves the paths of two Lower East Side streets, Manhattan Street (above) and Lewis Street.

Lewis Street once extended from Grand Street all the way north to East 8th Street. Its route has been taken over by the Baruch Houses, Lillian Wald Houses, and Jacob Riis Houses. A short stretch of East Third Street is also preserved, behind the school.

Columbia Street is one of the few streets in the area that has been allowed to keep all of its old route. It traverses the site of Peter Stuyvesant’s farm in the 1600s. Currently, it is the divider between the Baruch Houses and the Masaryk Towers.

Willett Street recalls Colonel Marinus Willett, a Revolutionary Army officer (and fiery activist among the Sons Of Liberty) and later sheriff and mayor of New York City. The northern course of Willett Street, above Delancey Street, is presently occupied by the Samuel Gompers Houses.

OTHER LOST STREETS OF THE LOWER EAST SIDE

There are a couple of other streets that got renamed or lost in the shuffle somehow in the area, and in the interest of being ruthlessly complete bordering on the tiresome, I’ll get into them here. And besides, it gives me a chance to create some more of these kewl fake green-and-white DOT signs.

This Jay Van Everen plaque, at the Canal Street BMT station token booth, shows a long-vanished NYC scene. But of what? Read on…

Van Everen, a painter by trade, designed a few of the plaques that appear in BMT station sbuilt from 1905-1920.

So what does the Van Everen mosaic in the Canal Street subway station depict?

It’s likely Van Everen saw this 1812 woodcut featuring the corner of Great George Street (today’s Broadway) and Canal Street. The building in the middle was the Stone Bridge Tavern. The stone bridge in the foreground carried Broadway over the canal.

When the canal was filled in, the bridge was buried under the street. It may still be there, although subway construction may have uprooted it.

The history of Canal Street is, in many ways, a history in brief of the whole of Lower Manhattan, and you could devote a whole webpage to Canal Street alone from the 1830s to the present.

Canal Street, in the remote era between 1805 to 1815, really had a canal running down the middle of the street.

As hard as it is for us to believe today, the island of Manhattan used to be open country, with forests, streams and ponds. One of the ponds, known to the Dutch as Kaltchhookand to the Brits as Fresh Water Pond, was used by original Native American inhabitants as a campsite and a fertile fishing pool. The Dutch name was later Anglicized into “Collect”.

Collect Pond consisted of a small pond at where Centre and Duane streets are today, and a much larger pond centered at where Centre and Leonard are today. A stream led from ‘the Collect’ to the Hudson River.

By 1791 the area around the Collect had been largely settled. The neighborhood was growing and various plans were proposed, among them one by Joseph Mangin, to either fill the pond or build a canal deep enough to accommodate shipping.

One of the principal fountains of the Collect was located at Roosevelt and Chatham Streets and was known as the Teawater Pump, since the locals used it as a freshwater spring for their favorite beverage. A resort known as the Teawater Garden arose in the region. By 1829, though, the resort had disappeared, though it lent its name to Pump Street, which angled nearby.

It was finally decided to fill the Collect. But the area became a disreputable one while the work was being done, since all manner of garbage and offal from nearby slaughterhouses were used as landfill.

Much of the Collect’s waters were drained off via a canal dug in 1805, running to the Hudson River. But the unclean waters bred mosquitoes and other pests, and it was decided to pave over the canal in 1815. To this day, though, Canal Street is still plagued by occasional cave-ins with the running water underneath it.

As for Pump Street, it was renamed as an eastern extension of Canal Street by the early 1840s.

Hester Street was the name of a 1975 movie that gave Carol Kane one of her first leading roles.

When North Street was laid out it represented the northern limit of Henry Rutgers holdings and also the northern limit of the inhabited section of Manhattan.

It was renamed for William Houstoun, a Georgia Congressman who married the daughter of local bigwig Nicholas Bayard III. Houston Street has nothing to do with Texas patriot Sam Houston, as some suspect.


Watch the video: In memory of George Best 1946-2005