We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Battle of Mylae, 260 BCNaval battle of the First Punic War. After the defeat and capture of Cnaeus Cornelius Scipio at Lipara, his co-consul Caius Duilius took command of the Roman fleet. News reached him that the Punic fleet was raiding the area of Mylae, on the northern coast of Sicily. Immediately he took out the Roman fleet to face them. Both fleets were probably of about the same size, with around 120-130 ships each, but the Romans had added a new weapon, the corvus, a form of boarding bridge, with which they hoped to make up for the otherwise inferior quality of their sailors at this period. The Carthaginian fleet appears to have got out of control very quickly at the start of the battle, and the forward elements charged towards the Roman fleet. The first thirty or so galleys to make contact were pinned by the corvus and boarded by the Roman marines. This included the Carthaginian flagship, and their admiral was forced to flee. The remaining Carthaginian ships used their superior speed to mount an attack on the rear of the Roman fleet, but many were also pinned. Finally, the remains of the Punic fleet escaped.
The Roman victory was substantial. Some fifty Carthaginian ships were either captured or sunk, and the balance of power at sea began to swing towards the Romans. Duilius was able to celebrate the first naval triumph in Rome, and began the tradition of displaying the prows of captured ships in the forum. The battle was won by the superior Roman soldiers, with the corvus helping to reduce the Carthaginian advance at sea.
Naval Battle of Mylae (260 BC)
The naval battle of Mylae was the first naval battle between Carthage and the Roman Republic in the First Punic War in 260 BC. . AD before the city Mylae (Greek: Mylae today Milazzo ) on the north coast of Sicily called, won a decisive victory in the Rome.
Duilius met Hannibal off northern Mylae in 260. Polybius states that the Carthaginians had 130 ships, but does not give an exact figure for the Romans.  The loss of 17 ships at the Lipari Islands from a starting total of 120 ships suggests that Rome had 103 remaining. However, it is possible that this number was larger than 103, thanks to captured ships and the assistance of Roman allies.  The Carthaginians anticipated victory, especially because of their superior experience at sea. 
The corvi were very successful, and helped the Romans seize the first 30 Carthaginian ships that got close enough (including the Carthaginian flagship). In order to avoid the corvi, the Carthaginians were forced to navigate around them and approach the Romans from behind, or from the side. The corvi were usually still able to pivot and grapple most oncoming ships.  Once an additional 20 of the Carthaginian ships had been hooked and lost to the Romans, Hannibal retreated with his surviving ships, leaving Duilius with a clear victory.
Instead of following the remaining Carthaginians at sea, Duilius sailed to Sicily to retrieve control of the troops. There he saved the city of Segesta, which had been under siege from the Carthaginian infantry commander Hamilcar.  Modern historians have wondered at Duilius’ decision not to immediately follow up with another naval attack, but Hannibal’s remaining 80 ships were probably still too strong for Rome to conquer. 
Military conflicts similar to or like Battle of Mylae
Naval encounter fought in 260 BC during the First Punic War. A squadron of 20 Carthaginian ships commanded by Boödes surprised 17 Roman ships under the senior consul for the year Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio in Lipara Harbour. Wikipedia
Naval battle, fought off southern Sicily, in 256 BC, between the fleets of Carthage and the Roman Republic, during the First Punic War . Commanded by Hanno and Hamilcar the Roman fleet jointly by the consuls for the year, Marcus Atilius Regulus and Lucius Manlius Vulso Longus. Wikipedia
The first pitched battle of the First Punic War and the first large-scale military confrontation between Carthage and the Roman Republic. Fought after a long siege which started in 262 BC and resulted both in a Roman victory and the beginning of Roman control of Sicily. Wikipedia
Event now termed the Asiatic Vespers. Previously in Roman history the war and the command structure would have been straightforward: the Senate would declare war, and the mandate to carry it out would be assigned to one of the two consuls elected for the year, with both being assigned if necessary, and ex-consuls being available as generals with the rank of proconsul. Wikipedia
The era of classical Roman civilization, led by the Roman people, beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. During this period, Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Wikipedia
The first of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the early 3rd century BC. For 23 years, in the longest continuous conflict and greatest naval war of antiquity, the two powers struggled for supremacy. The wars were fought primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa. Wikipedia
The first military clash between the Roman Republic and Carthage. It marked the start of the First Punic War. Wikipedia
Chronological list delineating important naval battles that have occurred throughout history, from the beginning of naval warfare with the Hittites in the 12th century BC to Piracy off the coast of Somalia in the 21st century. If a battle has no commonly used name isn't known it's referred to as "Action of (date)" within the list below. Wikipedia
Naval battle fought on 10 March 241 BC between the fleets of Carthage and Rome during the First Punic War. It took place among the Aegates Islands, off the western coast of the island of Sicily. Wikipedia
The Roman navy (Classis) comprised the naval forces of the ancient Roman state. Instrumental in the Roman conquest of the Mediterranean Basin, but it never enjoyed the prestige of the Roman legions. Wikipedia
One of the largest military forces in the ancient world. Always its main military force, the army acquired a key role in the spread of Carthaginian power over the native peoples of northern Africa and southern Iberian Peninsula from the 6th century BC and the 3rd century BC. Carthage's military also allowed it to expand into Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. Wikipedia
The naval Battle of Phintias took place in 249 BC during the First Punic War near modern Licata, southern Sicily between the fleets of Carthage under Carthalo and the Roman Republic under Lucius Junius Pullus. The Carthaginian fleet had intercepted the Roman Fleet off Phintias, and had forced it to seek shelter. Wikipedia
Year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. Known as the Year of the Consulship of Asina and Duilius . Wikipedia
The first clash between the navies of Carthage and Rome in 218 BC during the Second Punic War. The Carthaginians had sent 35 quinqueremes to raid Sicily, starting with Lilybaeum. Wikipedia
Naval battle of the Third Punic War fought in 147 BC between the Carthaginians and the Roman Republic. In the summer of 147 BC, during the Siege of Carthage, the Roman fleet, under the command of Lucius Hostilius Mancinus kept a close watch on the city from the sea. Wikipedia
Fought in 255BC between Carthage and the Roman Republic. The first fighting on African land during the First Punic War. Wikipedia
Revolt against the Second Triumvirate of the Roman Republic. Led by Sextus Pompey and ended in a Triumvirate victory. Wikipedia
The naval Battle of Drepana (or Drepanum) took place in 249 BC during the First Punic War near Drepana (modern Trapani) in western Sicily, between a Carthaginian fleet under Adherbal and a Roman fleet commanded by Publius Claudius Pulcher. Blockading the Carthaginian stronghold of Lilybaeum when he decided to attack their fleet, which was in the harbour of the nearby city of Drepana. Wikipedia
Carthaginian general who served during the middle years of the First Punic War, fought between Carthage and Rome, and took a leading part in three of the four major field battles of the war. Citizen of the city state of Carthage, which was in what is now Tunisia. Wikipedia
Battle in late 255 BC of the First Punic War between a Carthaginian army jointly commanded by Bostar, Hamilcar and Hasdrubal and a Roman army led by Marcus Atilius Regulus. Earlier in the year, the new Roman navy established naval superiority and used this advantage to invade the Carthaginian homeland, which roughly aligned with modern Tunisia in North Africa. Wikipedia
Roman politician involved in the First Punic War. Patrician member of the Scipiones branch of the famous Cornelii, a family with a history as old as the Roman Republic itself. Wikipedia
Fought in Sicily in 250 BC during the First Punic War between a Roman army led by Lucius Caecilius Metellus and a Carthaginian force led by Hasdrubal. The Roman force of two legions defending the city of Panormus defeated the much larger Carthaginian army of 30,000 men and between 60 and 142 war elephants. Wikipedia
Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom , Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire. Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, traditionally dated to 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. Wikipedia
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against numerous Gallic tribes between 58 BC and 50 BC. They culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium). While militarily just as strong as the Romans, the Gallic tribes' internal divisions helped ease victory for Caesar Vercingetorix's attempt to unite the Gauls against Roman invasion came too late. Wikipedia
The agreement of 241 BC, amended in 237 BC, between Carthage and Rome which ended the First Punic War after 23 years of conflict. Defeated by a Roman fleet commanded by Gaius Lutatius Catulus while attempting to lift the blockade of its last, beleaguered, strongholds there. Wikipedia
The attempt by the Roman Republic in 255 BC to rescue the survivors of their defeated expeditionary force to Carthaginian Africa during the First Punic War. Struck by a storm while returning, losing most of its ships. Wikipedia
Naval battle fought in 888 between the Byzantine and Aghlabid fleets off northeastern Sicily. Major Aghlabid victory. Wikipedia
The first major battle of the Second Punic War, fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and a Roman army under Sempronius Longus on 22 or 23 December 218 BC. It took place on the flood plain of the west bank of the lower Trebia River, not far from the settlement of Placentia (modern Piacenza), and resulted in a heavy defeat for the Romans. War broke out between Carthage and Rome in 218 BC. The leading Carthaginian general, Hannibal, responded by leading a large army out of Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal), through Gaul, across the Alps and into Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy). Wikipedia
The Illyrian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Roman Republic and the Ardiaei kingdom. That the trade across the Adriatic Sea increased after the First Punic War at a time when Ardiaei power increased under queen Teuta. Wikipedia
Naval battle fought in 880 between the Byzantine and Aghlabid fleets off the southern Italian peninsula. Major Byzantine victory. Wikipedia
In T. S. Eliot's poem The Waste Land, Part I, "The Burial of the Dead" ends with the following passage:
There I saw one I knew, and called him, crying:
Stetson! You who were with me in the ships at Mylae.
That corpse you planted last year in your garden:
Has it begun to sprout? Will it bloom this year?
Or has the sudden frost disturbed its bed?
Oh, keep the dog far hence, that's friend to men,
Or with his nails, he'll dig it up again.
You! hypocrite lecteur!—mon semblable,—mon frère!
Inspired by success in the battle of Agrigentum, the Romans sought to win all of Sicily, but required naval power to do so. In order to challenge the already prominent Carthaginian naval forces, Rome built a fleet of one hundred quinqueremes and twenty triremes. The famous Greek historian Polybius wrote that Rome used a wrecked Carthaginian quinquereme captured at Messina as a model for the entire fleet, and that the Romans would have otherwise had no basis for design. However, this may have been an exaggeration, as the Romans had also borrowed Greek quinqueremes previously in 264.
Rome’s two consuls of 260 were Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Asina and Gaius Duilius. It had been decided that the former would handle the fleet and that Duilius would command the army. However, Scipio’s first encounter with the enemy in the Battle of the Lipari Islands led to the loss of 17 ships and an embarrassing surrender to the Carthaginians under the general Senator Boodes and the naval commander Hannibal Gisco. This was the same Hannibal who had retreated after the conquest of Agrigentum, but not the famous Hannibal who would much later invade Italy during the Second Punic War. After Scipio Asina’s surrender, the remaining fleet was placed in the hands of Duilius, and the foot soldiers were turned over to military tribunes.
The Romans recognised their weakness in naval power and tactics, especially after the incident of the Lipari Islands. With this in mind they constructed the corvus, a plank to link ships together at sea. The inventor of the corvus is unknown, but it could have been a Syracusan, such as Archimedes. This device would be attached to the prow of Roman ships on a rotating axle, so that it could be swung around and its spiked end could then be dropped onto an enemy ship. In this way the Romans could still make use of their superior soldiers by loading them across the corvus and onto enemy ships.
Several civilizations settled in Milazzo and left signs of their presence from the Neolithic age. In Homer's Odyssey Milazzo is presumably the place where Ulysses is shipwrecked and meets Polyphemus.
Historically, the town originated as the ancient Mylae (Ancient Greek: Μύλαι ), an outpost of Zancle, occupied before 648 BC, perhaps as early as 716 BC.   It was taken by the Athenians in 426 BC. The people of Rhegium planted the exiles from Naxos and Catana in 395 BC as a counterpoise to Dionysius the Elder's foundation of Tyndaris but Dionysius soon took it. In the bay Gaius Duilius won the first Roman naval victory over the Carthaginians (260 BC).
In 36 BC the naval Battle of Mylae was fought offshore. The fleet of Octavian, commanded by Marcus Agrippa, engaged that of Sextus Pompey. While the battle was nearly a draw, Sextus could not replace his losses, and was thus weaker at the following Battle of Naulochus (36 BC), where he was utterly defeated. 
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, under the Byzantines, the town became one of the first episcopal seats of Sicily. In the 9th century Milazzo was conquered by the Arabs, who built the first nucleus of the castle here. Frederick II of Hohenstaufen further fortified the town and created a personal hunting park. The castle was later mostly rebuilt in the age of Charles V of Spain.
Milazzo was also the seat of a battle in 1718 between Spain and Austria, and of another fought by Giuseppe Garibaldi against the Kingdom of Two Sicilies during his Expedition of the Thousand.
Milazzo borders with the municipalities of Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto, Merì and San Filippo del Mela. 
Milazzo is the point of reference of a vast territory, from Villafranca Tirrena to Patti (over 200,000 inhabitants). Is also, an important centre of the Strait of Messina Metropolitan Area (who also includes areas of Reggio Calabria), with the nearby town Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto. Located at the base of a peninsula that juts into the Tyrrhenian Sea with a small promontory, the town is 43 kilometres (27 mi) from the city of Messina. [ citation needed ]
- . Begun by the Arabs, enlarged by the Normans, restored and strengthened by Frederick II, it is surrounded by walls with round towers built under Alfonso V of Aragon, with a Gothic portal dating from the 14th century. Near the castle are the ruins of the fourteenth-century palace of the grand jury and the old cathedral (1603) probably built on a design by architect Camillo Camillians.
- the Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
- the Baroque Church of the Holy Crucifix (1629), housing a wooden canopy from the 18th century and a wooden crucifix from the early 17th century.
- Rock church of St. Anthony of Padua
- Sanctuary of St. Francis of Paola
Over time, the town is moving forward towards the sea by recording a continuous development of agriculture and fishing activities, commercial and industrial.
The port of Milazzo is a departure point for ferries to the Aeolian Islands and Naples.
The battle [ edit | edit source ]
While Scipio was at the strait, he received information that the garrison of Lipara was willing to defect to the Roman side. What happened next is usually described as a treacherous act of the Carthaginians, but the sources do not give much detail and are usually pro-Roman. Though at sea most likely to let the crews gain some experience, the consul could not resist the temptation of conquering an important city without a fight and sailed to Lipara. As the Romans entered the harbour with their brand new ships, a part of the Carthaginian fleet, commanded by Hannibal Gisco (the general defeated in Agrigentum) and Boodes, was either waiting in ambush (pro-Roman sources), or received word of the Roman fleet's position and surprised them. Boodes led about 20 ships to block the Romans inside the harbour. Scipio and his men offered little resistance. The inexperienced crews panicked and fled and the consul himself was captured. His credulity earned him the pejorative cognomen Asina, which means donkey in Latin. This cognomen was all the more insulting due to the fact that "asina" was the feminine form of the word donkey, as opposed to the masculine form "asinus".
Battle of Naulochus 38 B.C.
On 38 BC, the Second Triunvirate was living a relatively peaceful period: in Rome, Octavian had just married Livia Drusilla, while Marc Antony lived in Athens his last happy days with Octavia, that calmed him and tried to ease relations between him and her beloved brother.
However, the marriage of Octavian meant his divorce from Scribonia, Sextus Pompey´s aunt, and this fact accelerated the breach between them. Sextus, son of Pompey, had occupied Sicily for some years as well as Sardinia and the Peloponnese having been appointed as governor by the Treaty of Misenum in 39 BC. Sicily was the main grain supplier of Rome, and it was the last stronghold of the republican resistance. Sextus was a source of conflict for the Triunvirate, as he often stopped the supply of grain, causing hunger in the capital city of the Empire.
On 38 BC, Octavian started war against Sextus, but the campaign was a disaster and had to call back the boats due to bad weather. Octavian called Lepidus and Antony for help, but when Lepidus didn´t show up, Antony returned to the East.
Octavian, seeing himself neglected by the other triunvirs, focused on the construction of a new fleet, leaving in command his great friend Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, that had just arrived from Gaul where he had obtained great military success. Agrippa, grand strategist and great as field commander, built an inner harbor, Portus Iulius, that connected Lake Avernus and Lake Lucrinus and this to the sea. This port could´t be seen from the sea, which was frequently sailed by Sextus´ ships, and was used secretly to train men in naval special warfare. They could experiment with a new weapon invented by Agrippa himself, the harpax, that improved the traditional corvus.
Octavian joined him, leaving Maecenas in charge of Rome and Italy, even though he didn´t hold public office. He called again for help of the other triunvirs. Antony, thanks to the intervention of Octavia, sent 120 ships to Tarentum in exchange for 20.000 soldiers to be used in his Partian War. Lepidus also sent help, and this way, the Triunvirate powers were renewed fot 5 more years.
On 36 BC, Octavian, Agrippa and Antony launched a triple attack against Sextus Pompey. Once again, Octavian was near death in the Battle of Taormina, where he was defeated. Agrippa defeated Sextus in the Battle of Mylae, and later, on September 3, in the Battle of Naulochus.
In front of Naulochus promontory, Agrippa met Sextus’ fleet. Both fleets were composed of 300 ships, all with artillery, but Agrippa commanded heavier units, armed with the harpax. Agrippa used his new weapon to great effect, succeeding in blocking the more maneuverable ships of Sextus and, after a long and bloody fight, in defeating his enemy. Agrippa lost three ships, while 28 ships of Sextus were sunk, 17 fled, and the others were burnt or captured.
Octavian made Agrippa consul in 37 BC, an unaffordable office for someone lowly as Agrippa. He was also given numerous properties, and was granted the hand of Caecilia Attica, daughter of Titus Pomponius Atticus, great friend of Cicero.
The Battle of Naulochus is of decisive for the Roman Empire: on one hand, it meant the end of the Republican resistance, and on the other hand it meant the disappearance of Lepidus, leaving the world in the hands of two men: Octavian in the West and Antony in the East.
“But this man, unconquerable by human power, received at this time a heavy blow at the hands of fortune, since the greater part of his fleet was wrecked and scattered in the vicinity of Velia and Cape Palinurus by a violent scirocco. This delayed finishing the war, which, however, was subsequently carried on with shifting and sometimes doubtful fortune.”
Players [ edit | edit source ]
Player [ edit | edit source ]
- Player (Carthaginians): The player starts with a Tool Age base, villagers, and some slingers on the Southern island.
Enemies [ edit | edit source ]
- Romans (Romans): Rome starts with a large Bronze Age base on the Nouthern island. They also have a seperated base on one of the Western island, guarding some gold mines.
- Syracuse (Romans): Syracuse starts with a Bronze Age base situated on the same island with the player. They are blocked by the cliff, so a land based invasion is practically impossible. They will actively attack the player with a navy and transport ships.
Player [ edit | edit source ]
- Player (Carthaginians): The player starts with a Tool Age base, villagers, and some slingers on the western island.
Enemies [ edit | edit source ]
- Rome (Romans): Rome starts with a large Bronze Age base on the eastern island. They attack with a navy, archers, infantry, and siege weapons. They keep several priests for defence.
- Syracuse (Romans): Syracuse starts with a post-Iron Age force made of Broad Swordsmen, Heavy Catapults, and Priests on the southern island. The island is also guarded by Sentry Towers. Syracuse acts passively and has no economy, except for two Fishing Ships (the Villager is inactive).
Aftermath and Legacy
Scipio was later released, probably ransomed. His easy defeat earned him the pejorative cognomen Asina, which means donkey in Latin. This cognomen was all the more insulting because “asina” was the feminine form of the word donkey, as opposed to the masculine form “asinus”. In spite of this Scipio’s career prospered and he was consul for a second time in 254 BC.
Shortly after the Lipara victory, Hannibal Gisco was scouting with 50 Carthaginian ships when he encountered the full Roman fleet. He escaped, but lost most of his ships. It was after this skirmish that the Romans installed the corvus on their ships. The corvus was a bridge 1.2 m (4 ft) wide and 11 m (36 ft) long, with a heavy spike on the underside, which was designed to pierce and anchor into an enemy ship’s deck. This allowed marines to more easily board enemy ships and capture them.
Later the same year Scipio’s fellow consul, Gaius Duilius, placed the Roman army units under subordinates and took command of the fleet. He promptly sailed, seeking battle. The two fleets met off the coast of Mylae in the Battle of Mylae. Hannibal Gisco had 130 ships, and the historian John Lazenby calculates that Duilius had approximately the same number. Using the corvus the Romans captured 50 Carthaginian vessels and dealt the Carthaginians a sharp defeat.
The war was to last for another 19 years before ending in a Carthaginian defeat and a negotiated peace. Thereafter Rome was the leading military power in the western Mediterranean, and increasingly the Mediterranean region as a whole. The Romans had built more than 1,000 galleys during the war, and this experience of building, manning, training, supplying, and maintaining such numbers of ships laid the foundation for Rome’s maritime dominance for 600 years.