History of Sable IX-81 - History

History of Sable IX-81 - History


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Sable

(IX-81: dp. 6,564; 1. 535'; b. 58')

Sable (IX-81), formerly named Greater Buffalo, was built in 1924 by the American Shipbuilding Co. Lorain Ohio; acquired for Navy use on 7 August 1942 by WSA from the Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Co., Detroit, Mich.; named Sable on 19 September 1942 converted at the Erie Plant, American Shipbuilding Co., Buffalo, N. Y., and commissioned on 8 May 1943; Capt. William A. Schoech in command.

With the installation of a carrier deck, Sable was designated for use as a training vessel for qualification of carrier pilots. She was assigned to the 9th Naval District on 1 June 1943 and qualified pilots for carrier operations until decommissioned on 7 November 1945. Sable was struck from the Navy list on 28 November 1945. Sold by the Maritime Commission to H. H. Buncher Co., on 7 July 1948, she was scrapped on the 27th.


“Vast amounts of information can be gleaned from and memorialized through these special objects. Artifacts lost in the cold, fresh waters of Lake Michigan usually exhibit excellent preservation characteristics. Many of the aircraft in this assemblage have been found in good condition, tires inflated, parachutes preserved, leather seats maintained, and engine crankcases full of oil. Often paint schemes are well preserved, allowing for easier identification.”

Once the war was over, the need for such training ships came to an end and, in November 1945, both the Wolverine and the Sable, which did much to prepare American naval aviators for war, were decommissioned and later sold for scrap.

Comments

I qualified on both of these carriers on August 21,1945 in an FM2 and then joined a Corsair squadron VBF97 I left the Navy in March 1946.
from NAS Grosse Isl. Michigan.


Sable (IX-81): Photographs

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

Arriving at Buffalo, N.Y., on 6 August 1942 for conversion to USS Sable (IX-81).
Note the towering wooden superstructure on top of the low steel hull. Only the latter was retained in the conversion.

Photo No. NH 81066
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Fitting out at Buffalo, New York, on 15 January 1943.
The flight deck is still incomplete, and the name Greater Buffalo is still on the paddle boxes. Note that she has four thin smokestacks.

Photo No. NH 81064
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Photographed around the time of her commissioning on 8 April 1943.
The original photo caption gives the date of the photo as 8 May 1943, but the presence of ice in the harbor suggests it was taken earlier. The location appears to be the conversion yard at Buffalo. Her four thin smokestacks have been merged into two larger ones.

Photo No. 80-G-41716
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-80-G

Off Traverse City, Michigan, on 10 August 1943 conducting test flights of the then-secret TDN-1 drone aircraft.
Two of these large drones are on deck.

Photo No. 80-G-387151
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-80-G

A North American SNJ-3 trainer (Bu. No. 01876) taking off in May 1945 during training operations on the Great Lakes.

Photo No. 80-G-354751
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Photographed in June 1945 after a Wildcat fighter crashed into the barrier.


History of Sable IX-81 - History

USS Sable (IX-81) was converted to a training aircraft carrier used by the United States Navy during World War II. Originally built as the passenger ship Greater Buffalo, a side-wheel excursion steamer, she was purchased by the Navy in 1942 and converted to a training aircraft carrier to be used on the Great Lakes. Lacking a hangar deck, elevators or armament, she was not a true warship, but provided advanced training of naval aviators in carrier takeoffs and landings.

On her first day of service fifty-nine pilots became qualified within nine hours of operations, with each making eight takeoffs and landings. Pilot training was conducted seven days a week in all types of weather conditions. One aviator who trained upon the Sable was future president George H. W. Bush.

Following World War II, Sable was decommissioned on 7 November 1945. She was sold for scrapping on 7 July 1948 to the H.H. Buncher Company. Sable and her sister ship, USS Wolverine, hold the distinction of being the only freshwater, coal-fired, side paddle-wheel aircraft carriers used by the United States Navy.

Refit

Sable was converted at the Erie Plant of American Shipbuilding Company at Buffalo, New York. The cabins and superstructure of the ship were removed leaving the main deck. Along with additional supports, a steel flight deck was installed instead of the originally planned Douglas-fir wooden deck similar to what was installed on USS Wolverine. The steel deck also allowed Sable to be used for the testing a variety of non-skid coatings applied to the flight deck.

The deck of Sable was equipped with eight sets of arresting cables as well. A bridge island or superstructure was constructed on the starboard side of the ship along with outriggers forward of the island for storing damaged aircraft.

On the main deck a lecture room, along with projection equipment, was constructed that could accommodate more than forty aviators with bunks for twenty one aviators. She was also equipped with a sick bay, operating room, laundry, tailor shop, crew quarters, a cafeteria style galley for the crew, a mess hall for the officers, storerooms and a refrigerator.

Sable lacked a hangar deck, elevators or armament, as her role was for the training of pilots for carrier take-offs and landings. A number of crew members assigned to Sable prior to her commissioning were survivors of USS Lexington which had been lost earlier during the Battle of the Coral Sea. Sable was commissioned on 8 May 1943 with Captain Warren K. Berner in command.

Naval Service

Training duty

The completed Sable departed Buffalo on 22 May 1943 and arrived at her assigned homeport of Chicago, Illinois on 26 May 1943 and was docked at what came to be called Navy Pier joining her sister ship USS Wolverine in what was casually referred to as the "Corn Belt Fleet". Sable along with her sister ship, Wolverine, were assigned to the 9th Naval District Carrier Qualification Training Unit (CQTU) and were tasked with qualifying pilots for carrier operations. With the flight deck shorter and lower to the water it was felt that if a pilot could master take offs and landings they would have less trouble when they were stationed on a standard size carrier. Pilot training was conducted seven days a week with the fifty-nine pilots becoming qualified within nine hours of her first day of service. One issue that arose was that because of the lower top speed and height of Sable there wasn't enough "wind over deck" needed in order to launch certain types of aircraft or even carry out training on calm days. In August 1943 Sable was used as a base for testing the experimental TDN-1 torpedo drone aircraft.

Naval aviators who had earned their wings at Pensacola or Corpus Christi reported to NAS Glenview and received orientation training before commencing the required minimum of eight landings and takeoffs from the carriers. Before any shipboard landings were attempted, however, practice landings took place on runways that had been marked like carrier decks.

Training on board the USS Sable was rigorous. The training began at sunrise and didn’t end until sunset. Take offs and landing were practiced throughout the 14 hour day and would only be cancelled in foggy weather where the takeoffs and landings would be too risky. Once the pilots completed their daily takeoffs and landings, they would return to Glenview. Rarely would a plane remain overnight on the flight deck. It was the goal of the Navy to train each pilot in the same type of aircraft that they would be flying with the fleet. Shortages resulted and often prevented this practice. Carrier fighter group pilots could qualify in Grumman F4F Wildcats, while scout and bomber pilots flew in the North American SNJ Texan. The program was so rigorous that 30 pilots could be qualified in one day. On May 28th, 1944 the Sable broke her own record and qualified 59 pilots with 498 landings in a total of 531 minutes.

Training on board the USS Sable was not limited to pilots. On board experience was also given to carrier personnel before they were assigned to escort carriers. Every two weeks, a new class of 15 men reported to receive four weeks of training in flight deck procedures. Instructors and techs came to receive practical shipboard training, along with thousands of other aircrew members.

Decommissioning and disposal

Following the end of World War II, Sable was decommissioned on 7 November 1945 and struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 28 November 1945. Before she was to be auctioned off a proposal was made by the Great Lakes Historical society to have Sable become a museum for Great Lakes history at Put-in-Bay, Ohio near the Commodore Perry monument. When that proposal failed she was sold by the Maritime Commission to H. H. Buncher Company on 7 July 1948 and was reported as "disposed of" on 27 July 1948. In order to fit through the Welland Canal, Sable was cut down prior to her journey to the ship breaking yard at Hamilton, Ontario. It was reported that 28 feet (8.5 m) of her beam along with 50 feet (15 m) of her stern flight deck were removed prior to her being moved by tugboats. Even with the modifications Sable only had 5 feet (1.5 m) of clearance on each side while passing through the canal locks.

Legacy

Together, Sable and Wolverine trained 17,820 pilots in 116,000 carrier landings. Of these, 51,000 landings were on Sable alone. One of the pilots qualified on Sable was a 20-year-old Lieutenant, junior grade, future president George H. W. Bush on Aug. 24, 1943. Of the estimated 135� aircraft lost during training, 35 have been salvaged and the search for more is underway. Both USS Sable and USS Wolverine hold the distinction of being the only freshwater, coal-driven, side paddle-wheel aircraft carriers used by the United States Navy. USS Sable earned both the American Campaign Medal and the World War II Victory Medal during her Naval career.

Flight deck operations on USS Sable IX-81 from 1943-1945

Construction

Greater Buffalo was built in 1924 by the American Ship Building Company of Lorain, Ohio as a side-wheel excursion steamer designed by marine architect Frank E. Kirby. Her hull number was 00786 and the official number assigned to her was 223663.

Drawing of steamer Greater Buffalo designed by Frank E. Kirby (1922)

The interior of the ship was designed by W & J Sloane & Company of New York City in what was referred to as "an adaptation of the Renaissance style". There were 650 staterooms and more than 1,500 berths for passengers. Each room had a telephone connected by a central switch board located in the ship's lobby. The highest priced staterooms offered a private bathroom, couch and balcony. Her dining room could seat 375. Greater Buffalo could transport up to 103 vehicles on her main deck and 1,000 tons of freight. At the time she was given the nickname "Majestic of the Great Lakes".

Postcard of Main Saloon and staircase aboard steamer Greater Buffalo.

Her hull was all steel with eleven watertight compartments and a double bottom divided into sixteen watertight compartments. Hydraulically controlled watertight doors could be remotely operated from the engine room. The ship was also equipped with twelve 60-person capacity lifeboats along with an assortment of life rafts and floats.

When completed, Greater Buffalo was 518.7 ft (158.1 m) in length, a beam of 58 ft (18 m), height of 21.3 ft (6.5 m) and measured 7,739 gross register tons. She had nine boilers installed and was powered by a three-cylinder inclined compound steam engine. The engine, built by American Shipbuilding, had one cylinder of 66 inches (170 cm) diameter and two of 96 inches (240 cm) diameter by 108 inches (270 cm) stroke. It was rated at 1,915 NHP.

She was seven decks high, carried three funnels along her top and was equipped with rudders at both ends of the ship for improved maneuverability. She carried a crew of 300 officers and enlisted with their cabins stationed on the lowest deck fore and aft of the ship's machinery. The final cost for construction was $3,500,000.

History

The Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company ordered a pair of new excursion steamer ships for their Great Lakes routes.

Greater Buffalo was among the largest side wheel paddle ships on the Great Lakes when she entered service in 1924. Her port of registry was Detroit, Michigan.

On her maiden voyage to Buffalo, New York on 13 May 1925 Greater Buffalo carried a capacity number of passengers. The steamer was used as a palatial overnight service boat transporting up to 1,500 passengers from Buffalo to Detroit, Michigan for the Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company. Guests were entertained by an orchestra for dancing in the main dining room following dinner service as well as radio programming provided in the main salon. Along with passenger service Greater Buffalo offered their customers the option of transportation for 125 automobiles on their voyage.

During the Great Depression Greater Buffalo was taken out of service from 1930 through 1935. In 1936 Greater Buffalo was docked at Cleveland and used as a "floating hotel" for attendees of the Republican Convention.

Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 there was a need for large vessels that could be converted into training aircraft carriers for pilot training. Greater Buffalo's length, following conversion, would be roughly two thirds the length of an Independence-class aircraft carrier and it was felt by the navy that if pilots could master takeoffs and landings on the shorter deck they would have less problems transitioning to a standard length carrier. Other benefits by using her for training were that an active duty combat ship would not have to be used for training and with her location on the Great Lakes she would be out of the reach of enemy submarines and mines. Greater Buffalo was acquired by the Navy on 7 August 1942 by the War Shipping Administration to be converted into a training aircraft carrier and renamed Sable on 19 September 1942.


The Retrofit of USS Sable

The USS Sable was an aircraft carrier that was used to train pilots and carrier personnel in the Great Lakes region during WWII. Before the Sable was an aircraft carrier, it began as a luxury ferry that carried passenger through the Great Lakes.

Pre-war – luxury liner and construction

Before the war, the Sable was not an aircraft carrier but instead a luxury liner named The Greater Buffalo. As a luxury liner, it carried passengers through the Great Lakes in style. The Greater Buffalo was built by the Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company. In 1922, The Marine Review reported “The Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Co. has placed a provisional contract with the American Shipbuilding Co. for two passenger steamers. Plans for turbine driven screw propulsion has been abandoned and decision made to utilize the standard paddle wheel method prevailing on lake passenger boats.” The passenger steamers were designed by Frank E. Kirby, a notable naval architect from the region. Some of the proposed designs are shown in primary sources number 9 through 11, these schematics were created by Frank E. Kirby by the American Shipbuilding Company. As shown the paddle-wheel was selected in the design process. Two advantages of using a paddle wheel design over screws was that the vessel would be less likely to get clogged with debris and when operated the paddle wheels would allow the vessel to maneuver easier than a turbine driven screw propulsion vessel. The Greater Buffalo was built-in Lorain, Ohio in 1923, along with her sister ship the Greater Detroit. The Greater Buffalo was 536 feet long and 96 feet wide at it longest points. It was built to accommodate a crew of 275 and carry 2120 passengers. Both the Greater Detroit and The Greater Buffalo were at the time the largest side-wheel steamships in the world. The experience of traveling by the Greater Detroit and The Greater Buffalo steamships was considered far more relaxing than train travel at the time. Although train travel was faster, it was crowded and considered the preferred mode of transportation by the lower classes. Advertisements such as the one quoted below, created an influx of wealthy citizens boarding luxury liners.

The Greater Buffalo [2] “’the last word in marine architecture, and the palatial furnishings are rich and attractive and in good taste … The dining room could seat 375 people, and satisfied “appetites sharped by brisk lake breezes” with “fish fresh from the cold depths of the Great Lakes themselves,’”(Historic Detroit )

For this reason, the Greater Buffalo and its fine accommodations was called the Majestic of the Great Lakes. These luxury steamers not only provided an exclusive experience for the wealthy, they also brought people to Detroit and to vacation hot spots such as Mackinac Island in Michigan and vacation destinations throughout the Great Lakes region. Although these ships mainly catered to the comfort of the wealthy, they also carried something besides passengers. The Greater Buffalo also carried 1000 tons of freight between cities. So from her maiden voyage in 1923 until her final luxury voyage in 1942, the Greater Buffalo and her sister ship was renowned as the most luxurious ways to travel the Great Lakes. The use of the Greater Buffalo and her sister ship began to decline with the rise of the automobile. With the mass production of automobiles in Detroit, more citizens could afford to purchase their own vehicle and could travel whenever they wanted. The ferry was used less frequently because citizens chose to drive their own vehicles which were faster and more convenient. The rise of the automobile caused between 30 and 35 ferries to no longer be in use. During the Great Depression, the Greater Buffalo was docked because there weren’t enough paying customers to make it cost-effective.

Acquiring and renaming ships for the Navy

With the damage done to the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941, The US Navy needed to replace the ships lost in the attack with vessels that would become aircraft carriers. As stated by the maritime commission, “A number of the commission’s new cargo vessels would be converted into aircraft carriers for the Navy”. The Navy was looking for vessels that were not only large but also readily available. Because the Greater Buffalo met both of these criteria, The US Navy acquired the vessel and converted it into USS Sable. The Navy also acquired the Seeandbee, which would become the USS Wolverine.

Refitting the Greater Buffalo

The USS Sable being retrofitted in the dry docks in Buffalo, NY [1] In order to ready the The Greater Buffalo for naval service, the ship was sent to Buffalo, NY to be converted into an aircraft carrier by the American Shipbuilding Company. The docks in Buffalo, N.Y. were owned by the American Shipbuilding Company and were composed of “… three dry docks, each more than 400 feet long.”(6) which was capable of making the correct enhancements to the existing ship. The Greater Buffalo was stripped of the cabins above the main deck, but maintained cabins below deck for 300 crew members and aviators who landed on the carrier for an extended amount of time. A new flight deck was installed as described by Cressman 2013. “An experimental steel flight deck, 540 feet long and 85 feet wide, took shape on a box girder frame-the first such flight deck to be used in the construction of an American aircraft carrier. Various deck-coverings would be applied and evaluated.” (Cressman 2013)

In addition to the experimental deck, the USS Sable was also equipped with “two outriggers to accommodate parked aircraft forward of the island, and the fitting of YE and YG aircraft homing beacons.”(Miller 1988). As the Sable was not equipped with the traditional hanger as on the independence class aircraft carriers during the time, the Sable stored aircraft on the deck forward of the island. In addition, the Sable was equipped with YE and YG aircraft homing beacons, which identified carriers and guided pilots to the carrier using a radio compass system. The Sable was powered by an inclined compound engine and “with her two 30-foot diameter paddlewheels churning the waters at her sides, the Sable maintained a speed of 17.6 knots for four hours. A representative of the Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) found the flight deck and arresting gear installation ‘substantially complete, in good condition, and ready for operation.'” (Cressman 2013). The USS Sable and the USS Wolverine were the only coal-burning carriers in the US Navy which supplied coal to boilers which powered many systems on the ship and exited out of the two smoke stacks on the carrier. So the Sable was not equipped with any armaments usually on an aircraft carrier. The Sable was additionally equipped with a crane to remove damaged planes from the flight deck. The design changes made to the USS Sable created the necessary structure for a successful training program and allowed The USS Sable to successfully implement new building methods.

Navy fixes its training program

The USS Sable, with its highly engineered design, could now provide a location for training aviators during the war. For the training to be successful, The Sable was stationed in a safe area where bombers and submarines could not easily attack it. The location chosen was the Great Lakes. According to Captain R. F. Whitehead, Air Officer, Ninth Naval District, the Great Lakes were chosen because they had

“a massive body of water completely protected from enemy U-boats and bombers upon which Naval Aviators could practice carrier operations. This body of water was known collectively as the Great Lakes, the largest freshwater reservoir in the world.”(Johnson 2000).

Naval aviators who had earned their wings at Pensacola or Corpus Christi reported to NAS Glenview and received orientation training before commencing the required minimum of eight landings and takeoffs from the carriers . Before any shipboard landings were attempted, however, practice landings took place on runways that had been marked like carrier decks.

Training on board the USS Sable was rigorous. The training began at sunrise and didn’t end until sunset. Take offs and landing were practiced throughout the 14 hour day and would only be cancelled in foggy weather where the takeoffs and landings would be too risky. Once the pilots completed their daily takeoffs and landings, they would return to Glenview. Rarely would a plane remain overnight on the flight deck. It was the goal of the Navy to train each pilot in the same type of aircraft that they would be flying with the fleet. Shortages resulted and often prevented this practice. Carrier fighter group pilots could qualify in Grumman F4F Wildcats, while scout and bomber pilots flew in the North American SNJ Texan. The program was so rigorous that 30 pilots could be qualified in one day. On May 28th, 1944 the Sable broke her own record and qualified 59 pilots with 498 landings in a total of 531 minutes.

Training on board the USS Sable was not limited to pilots. On board experience was also given to carrier personnel before they were assigned to escort carriers. Every two weeks, a new class of 15 men reported to receive four weeks of training in flight deck procedures. Instructors and techcame to receive practical shipboard training, along with thousands of other aircrew members.

USS Sable [3] The Sable is commissioned

The Sable was commissioned on May 8th 1943 (Designated thnicians from the Navy Pier in Chicago also e IX-81) and was stationed in Chicago at Glenview Naval Air Station. At Glenview, The Sable and Wolverine trained aviators throughout the year even with bad weather. Both ships needed to be occasionally repaired and resupplied with coal at the Navy docks in Chicago. In November 7th, 1945 the USS Sable was decommissioned with 12,000 pilots trained and qualified. The USS Sable also boasts 51,000 landings made by aviators. After the war, in the July 7 1948 the Sable was sold and scrapped by the maritime administration, marking the end to an incredible ship that helped win the war.


Escort Carrier Program

The following article on the escort carrier program is an excerpt from Barrett Tillman’s book On Wave and Wing: The 100 Year Quest to Perfect the Aircraft Carrier. It is available to order now at Amazon and Barnes & Noble.

Among the miracles of production in the Second World War was America’s escort carrier program. For scale and efficiency, few industrial achievements could match it.

When the United States abruptly faced a severe shortage of flight decks in December 1941, a quick fix was found. Merchant ship hulls could be converted to “baby” or “jeep” carriers capable of operating as many as thirty aircraft. The British had pioneered the concept, but could not meet the numbers required—hence the Royal Navy’s reliance on its “rich uncle in America.”

USS Long Island was the first American escort carrier, originally designated ACV-1 (auxiliary aircraft carrier). Commissioned in June 1941, she was capable of 17 knots and proved the merchant conversion concept, but saw little combat.

The next four escort carriers were the Sangamon class, converted from oilers to flattops in as little as six months. They were 11,600-ton ships with two elevators to operate twenty-five planes.

Next came the Bogue class, ten escort carriers serving in the U.S. Navy and thirty-four with Britain as the Attacker and Ruler classes. They were small, usually less than five hundred feet in length, but weighed as much as 14,400 tons and proved highly versatile. Most entered service between early 1942 and early 1944.

Finally, the immensely successful Casablanca class produced fifty escort carriers in twenty-one months. More remarkably, they were commissioned in the year between July 1943 and July 1944. It was a stunning accomplishment, as Henry Kaiser’s Vancouver, Washington, shipyard built not only escort carriers, but turned out Liberty transport and cargo ships in as little as ninety days.

Small and lightly armored, “baby flattops” lent themselves to grim sailors’ humor. Some insisted that CVE stood for “combustible, vulnerable, and expendable.” Others said they were “two-torpedo ships” because the second torpedo would pass over the flight deck.

Seeandbee, acquired in March 1942, was commissioned in August as USS Wolverine (IX-64). The IX designator indicated a miscellaneous vessel. Her partner emerged as Sable (IX-81) in May 1943, both displacing about seven thousand tons as carriers. Because they were based at Chicago’s Navy Pier, their lack of a hangar deck was of little concern.

Wolverine’s flight deck measured five hundred feet in length, while Sable’s was 535, both about ninety-eight feet wide. Thus, their decks were shorter than a Casablanca-class CVE (476 x 80) but somewhat wider.

Wolverine began qualifying carrier pilots in September 1942, and by war’s end she and Sable were credited with producing 17,820 aviators who logged nearly 120,000 landings. (Originally pilots needed eight landings to qualify, later reduced to six.) In those three years the ships also trained forty thousand flight deck crewmen—essential supporting players in the carrier aviation cast.

Pilots reported to NAS Glenview from around the country, regardless of their ultimate carrier assignment. Retired Captain Chuck Downey recalled his experience as an eighteen-year-old “nugget” aviator in 1943. “We were only there for about three days. We spent a couple days working with an LSO, practicing carrier approaches at a training field, and then when he felt we were ready, he sent us out to the carrier.”

However, unavoidable complications arose. Inevitably the smoke from coal-burning engines wafted ashore, depositing sooty residue over the urban area, including laundry hung out to dry. Beyond that, when operating within view of shore, the carriers caused major traffic jams as motorists slowed or stopped to take in the Navy air show.

Some 140 carrier aircraft sank in the Great Lakes, with eight known fatalities. A few planes survived well enough in fresh water to be retrieved and restored for museum display, a reminder.

You can also buy the book by clicking on the buttons to the left.

This article is part of our larger resource on the WW2 Navies warfare. Click here for our comprehensive article on the WW2 Navies.


History

Following a period of company growth during World War I the Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company was able to order a pair of new ships for their Great Lakes routes. [8] The Greater Buffalo along with her sister ship Greater Detroit were among the largest side wheel paddle ships on the Great Lakes when she entered service in 1924. [15] [16]

On her maiden voyage to Buffalo, New York on May 13, 1925 the Greater Buffalo carried a capacity number of passengers including T.V. O'Connor who was president of the shipping board at the time. [17] Greater Buffalo was used as a palatial overnight service boat transporting up to 1,500 passengers from Buffalo to Detroit for the Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company. [3] [18] Guests were entertained by an orchestra for dancing in the main dining room following dinner service as well as radio programming provided in the main salon. [19] Along with passenger service the Greater Buffalo, as well as other Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company ships, offered their customers the option of transportation for 125 automobiles on their voyage. [9] [20]

During the Great Depression the Greater Buffalo along with her sister ship were taken out of service from 1930 thru 1935. This, along with union disputes and worker strikes, caused continuing losses for her owners. [18] In 1936 the Greater Buffalo was docked at Cleveland and used as a "floating hotel" for attendees of the Republican Convention. The ship was reported to have broken free of her moorings and drifted out into the harbor during a storm but was brought back by harbor tugs. [21] During the 1938 season the Greater Buffalo along with the Greater Detroit were removed from service only to be returned to service the following year. [8]

Following the attack on Pearl Harbor there was a need for large vessels that could be converted into training aircraft carriers for pilot training. [18] The Greater Buffalo's length, following conversion, would be roughly two thirds the length of an Independence class aircraft carrier and it was felt by the navy that if pilots could master takeoffs and landings on the shorter deck they would have less problems transitioning to a standard length carrier. Other benefits by using her for training were that an active duty combat ship would not have to be used for training and with her location on the Great Lakes she would be out of the reach of enemy submarines and mines. [5] The Greater Buffalo was acquired by the Navy on 7 August 1942 by the War Shipping Administration to be converted into a training aircraft carrier and renamed Sable on 19 September 1942. [22]


Genetics of the Sable Color

Sable is dominant over the black and tan/red color variant. What this means is, if you breed two black and red dogs together, you will never get sable puppies. However, since sable dogs can carry the black and red gene, you can get some black and red puppies if you breed two sable dogs together or breed a sable dog with a black and red dog.

Both sable and black and red are dominant over the pure black color variant. Because it is very recessive, the black gene can be carried for generations and then suddenly manifest as one black pup in a litter of sables or black and reds.


What's the difference between the Stable, Beta, Dev, and Canary channels/builds?

The Stable channel of the next version of Microsoft Edge is the most stable channel we offer with enterprise-focused features ready for you to pilot and evaluate across your organization. The Beta channel allows you to validate the next Stable release with a representative set of users. The Stable and Beta channels are updated approximately every six weeks. The Dev and Canary channels continue to update weekly and daily, respectively. Offline installers (MSIs and PKG files) are available only for Stable, Beta, and Dev channels. For more information, see Overview of Microsoft Edge channels.


USS Sable IX-81 (1924-1948)

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