Byzantine Emperor Timeline

Byzantine Emperor Timeline

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  • 395 CE - 408 CE

  • 408 CE - 450 CE

  • 450 CE - 457 CE

  • 457 CE - 474 CE

  • 457 CE

  • 474 CE

  • 491 CE - 518 CE

  • 518 CE - 527 CE

  • 527 CE - 565 CE

  • 565 CE - 578 CE

  • 578 CE - 582 CE

  • 582 CE - 602 CE

  • 602 CE - 610 CE

  • 610 CE - 641 CE

  • 641 CE

  • 641 CE

  • 668 CE - 685 CE

  • 685 CE - 695 CE

  • 695 CE - 698 CE

  • 698 CE - 705 CE

  • 705 CE - 711 CE

  • 711 CE - 713 CE

  • 713 CE - 716 CE

  • 716 CE - 717 CE

  • 717 CE - 741 CE

  • 720 CE

  • 741 CE - 775 CE

  • 775 CE - 780 CE

  • 780 CE - 790 CE

  • 780 CE - 797 CE

  • 790 CE

  • 797 CE - 802 CE

  • 802 CE

  • 802 CE - 811 CE

  • 811 CE

  • 811 CE - 813 CE

  • 813 CE - 820 CE

  • 820 CE - 829 CE

  • 829 CE - 842 CE

  • 842 CE - 867 CE

  • 866 CE

  • 867 CE

  • 867 CE - 886 CE

  • 869 CE

  • 870 CE

  • 912 CE - 913 CE

  • 920 CE - 944 CE

  • 945 CE - 959 CE

  • 959 CE - 963 CE

  • 963 CE - 969 CE

  • 969 CE - 976 CE

  • 1025 CE - 1028 CE

  • 1028 CE - 1034 CE

  • 1028 CE - 1050 CE

    Reign of Byzantine Empress Zoe (including spells alongside three husbands, a nephew and sister).

  • 1034 CE - 1041 CE

  • 1041 CE - 1042 CE

  • 1042 CE - 1055 CE

  • Apr 1042 CE - Jun 1042 CE

    Reign of Byzantine empresses Zoe and Theodora.

  • 1055 CE - 1056 CE

  • 1056 CE - 1057 CE

  • 1057 CE - 1059 CE

  • 1059 CE - 1067 CE

  • 1067 CE - 1071 CE

  • 1 Jan 1068 CE

    Romanos IV Diogenes marries the widowed Empress Eudokia and becomes Byzantine emperor.

  • 1071 CE - 1078 CE

  • 1078 CE - 1081 CE

  • Apr 1081 CE - Aug 1118 CE

  • 1118 CE - 1143 CE

  • 1143 CE - 1180 CE

  • 1180 CE - 1183 CE

  • 1183 CE - 1185 CE

  • 1185 CE - 1195 CE

  • 1195 CE - 1203 CE

  • 1203 CE - 1204 CE

    Joint reign of Byzantine emperors Isaac II and Alexios IV.

  • 1204 CE

  • 1204 CE

  • 1259 CE - 1282 CE

  • 1282 CE - 1328 CE

  • 1293 CE - 1320 CE

  • 1328 CE - 1341 CE

  • 1341 CE - 1376 CE

  • 1341 CE - 1354 CE

  • 1376 CE - 1379 CE

  • 1379 CE - 1391 CE

  • 1390 CE

  • 1391 CE - 1425 CE

  • 1425 CE - 1448 CE

  • 1449 CE - 1453 CE

  • 1449 CE

A Millennium of Glory: The Rise and Fall of the Byzantine Empire

Late antiquity was one of the most dramatic periods in our history – a turbulent time in which nations and peoples rose and fell, vying for power and territory in a merciless fight for prominence. Great migrations shook the known world, centuries-old traditions became obsolete, and strange new religions came into play – the world was changing.

And out of this change, this violent shifting of powers, a single realm managed to thrive and rise to the top. A mighty force that would survive great changes and dominate the European scene for more than a millennium – the Byzantine Empire.

Constantine the Great

Born Flavius Valerius Constantinus and later known as Constantine the Great, Constantine I was the first Christian Roman Emporer.

Many historians charge him with transforming the Roman Empire into a Christian state that is an accomplishment that would have an impact for centuries leading up to modern-day.

Constantine the Great’s most prominent action in history is the formation of “New Rome” in the then-Greek state of Byzantium. He later renamed the city Constantinople, which is now what we know as modern-day Istanbul. It was Constantine’s Christian beliefs that ultimately paved the way for the growth of the empire.

He also solidified the Christian culture that would be present in the Roman Empire and the Western world for centuries to come.

Early Emperors Visual Timeline

Perhaps a bit old-fashioned, this timeline shows the decades of the first century A.D. with the emperors and their dates of rule along the line for each decade. Also see 2nd Century Order of the Emperors timeline, 3rd Century, and 4th century. For the fifth century, see Roman Emperors After Theodosius.

Byzantine Emperor Timeline - History

Emperors of Byzantine (976 .. 1453)

Ruler Relationship to Predecessor To
967Basil II and Constantine VIII 1025
1025Constantine VIII 1028
1028Zoë and Romanus III Argyrus 1034
1034Zoë and Michael IV 1041
1041Zoë and Michael V 1042
1042Zoë and Constantine IX 1050
1050Constantine IX 1050
1052Theodora 1056
1056Michael VI Stratioticus 1057
1057Isaac I Comnenus 1059
1057Constantine X Ducas 1067
1067Eudoxia with Michael VII, Andronicus and Constantine 1068
1068Romanus IV Diogenes 1071
1071Michael VII Ducas (Restored) 1078
1078Nicephorus III Botaniates Ducas 1081
1081Alexius I Comnenus 1118
1118John II Comnenus 1143
1143Manuel I Comnenus 1180
1180Alexius II Comnenus 1183
1183Andronicus I Comnenus 1185
1185Isaac II Angelus 1195
1195Alexius III Angelus 1203
1203Alexius IV and Isaac II Angelus 1204
1204Alexius V Ducas 1204
Kings 936 - 1319
Basil II and Constantine VIII

The Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople in 1204 and a Latin Kingdom was established lasting until 1261, when Michael VIII succeeded in reunifying the Empire.

Ruler Relationship to Predecessor To
1204Baldwin I, Count of Flanders 1205
1205Henry of Flanders 1216
1216Yolande of Flanders 1219
1219Robert of Courtenay 1228
1228Baldwin II and Jean de Brienne (Regent) 1237
1237Baldwin II 1261

After the Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople in 1204 the old Byzantine Empire fragmented. Under the leadership of Theodore I Lascaris the Empire of Nicaean continued in parallel with the Latin control until Constantinople was recaptured in 1261.

Ruler Relationship to Predecessor To
1204Theodore I Lascaris 1222
1222John II Vatatzes 1254
1254Theodore II Lascaris 1258
1258John IV Vatatzes 1261
1259Michael VIII Palaeologus 1282

Restored Byzantine Empire

Under the leadership of Michael Palaeologus Constantinople was recaptured from the Latin army who had been in control since 1204.


Download this lesson as Microsoft Word file or as an Adobe Acrobat file.
Listen as Mr. Dowling reads this lesson.

Mr. Donn has an excellent website that includes a section on the Middle Ages.

The Byzantine was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East until 1453, when it fell to Turkish warriors. Diocletian was Emperor of Rome from 284 to 305CE. In 285, he appointed a Caesar to rule the western half of the empire. Constantinople is located on a well defended peninsula. The Bosporus Strait leads to the Black Sea, while the Sea of Marmara leads to the Mediterranean Sea. In 1095, Pope Urban II launched the first of many Crusades, or “wars of the cross." Saladin (1137 – 1193) was a Kurdish warrior who led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states. A bronze statue in Damascus was unveiled to commemorate the 800th anniversary of his death.

The Rise and Fall of the Carolingian Empire

After this battle, the Carolingian family came into power. Charles Martel defeated the Spanish Moors in this battle.

Charlemane is born

Conquest of the Lombard Kingdom

The Lombard Kingdom was in Italy and was very large. So its defeat meant a huge expansion for the Carolingian Empire.

Conquest of the Saxons

The Saxons were people that lived in Europe and the British Isles. During this conquest, Charlemagne sought to convert the Saxons.

Advance of christian powers in Spain

The Carolingians won the Spanish March from the Saracens, which helped them gain the ability to make more advancements then and in the future.

Charlemagne writes Admonitio Generalis

This is one of his most famous works. Another one of his most famous works is Epistola de Litteris Colendis and they have both survived to the present day.

Charlegmane is crowned emperor

Charlemagne was crowned on Christmas day by Pope Leo the lll. This in a way helped to revive the Western Roman Empire

Frankish Empire is ruled by the Carolingian Dynasty

The Frankish Empire was a large kingdom that consisted of small sub-kingdoms.

Charlemagne dies

Carolingian Civil War

This war mostly consisted of fighting between Louis the Pious (a son of Charlemagne) and Charles the Bald and his three sons Lothar, Pepin, and Louis the German.

Peace is restored

During the war, there was a large amount of fighting between the family. Louis the Pious had been stripped of his title. However, when the peace was restored between the family, he gained his title back.

Louis the Pious dies

Oaths of Strasbourg

Louis the German and Charles the Bald made an alliance. This divided the empire between the two of them.

4 Riots

As citizens of the greatest city on Earth, the people of Constantinople were never afraid to express themselves, often through violence. In the most famous example, fans of the Blue and Green chariot racing teams united to riot against Justinian I.

The emperor was prepared to flee, but the day was saved by his wife, Theodora, who proclaimed that she would rather die an empress than live as a commoner. The rebels were subsequently massacred.

Not all riots destabilized the empire. One particularly bloody civil war was effectively ended by a prison riot. Megaduke Alexios Apokaukos was inspecting his new jail when the political prisoners ran amok and murdered him, crippling his faction.

The assertive tendencies of Constantinople&rsquos citizenry survived the Ottoman conquest, and many a sultan cowered inside the Topkapi Palace while an enraged mob tore his vizier to pieces.

Finding treasure in trash

Elusa was already partly excavated, but the new investigation was the first to explore the site's long-ignored trash heaps, lead study author Guy Bar-Oz, a professor of archaeology at the University of Haifa in Israel, told Live Science in an email.

Unlike the architecture of an ancient city, which could be repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt, landfills steadily accumulated over time, creating continuous records of human activity. Clues found in preserved garbage dumps could thereby reveal if a city was thriving or in trouble.

"For me, it was clear that the true gold mine of data about daily life and what urban existence in the past really looked like was in the garbage," Bar-Oz said.

In the dump sites, the scientists found a variety of objects: ceramic pot sherds, seeds, olive pits, charcoal from burned wood and even evidence of discarded "gourmet foods" imported from the Red Sea and the Nile, the study authors reported.

The scientists carbon-dated organic material such as seeds and charcoal in layers of trash mounds located near the city. They found that trash had built up in that location over a period of about 150 years and that the accumulation terminated in the middle of the sixth century. This suggested there was a failure of infrastructure, which happens when a city is about to collapse, the researchers noted.

Based on the new evidence, researchers concluded that Elusa's decline began at least a century before Islamic rule wrested control of the region from the Romans. In fact, Elusa was struggling during a period that was relatively peaceful and stable it was during this time that the Roman Emperor Justinian was expanding the empire's boundaries across Europe, Africa and Asia, Bar-Oz said.

With the empire enjoying "a period of glorious success," it would seem logical to expect that its outposts would be financially secure, Bar-Oz said. Yet the data the researchers collected suggested the opposite.

"Instead, we are seeing a signal for what was really going on at that time and which has long been nearly invisible to most archaeologists — that the empire was being plagued by climatic disaster and disease," Bar-Oz explained.

The findings were published online today (March 25) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Videssian History [ edit | edit source ]

Videssian Timeline [ edit | edit source ]

Year Zero: Videssos the city and later the empire is established.

Zero+200: Avtokrator Stavrakios rules Videssos and expands it to its greatest size, conquering Agder from the Halogai and sacking Mashiz, the capital of Makuran.

Not long afterwards, Kveldulf the Halogai attempts to convert his fellow Halogai to Phos, but is martyred in the attempt.

Stylianos vs. Maleinos II and the Rise of Rhavas [ edit | edit source ]

Zero+400: Grand Domestikos Stylianos launches a rebellion against Avtokrator Maleinos II, plunging the empire into civil war. Maleinos pulls the garrisons from the towns and cities and Stylianos recalls border guards to help them fight one another. This conflict weakens Videssos so much that the Khamorth nomads of Pardraya manage to enter and invade the north-eastern provinces of Videssos, sacking Skopentzana. Makuran also manages to seize Vaspurakan from Videssos. Prelate Rhavas of Skopentzana turns from Phos to Skotos. Stylianos defeats and kills Maleinos, becoming Avtokrator.

Over time, the nations of Kubrat, Khatrish and Thatagush emerge from the lands the Khamorth invaded.

Not long after this war ended, the Vaspurakaner rebel Andzeratsik (the Videssian style name he took was Kalekas) attempted to seize power in a civil war and lost about 150 years before the Time of Troubles.

The "Time of Troubles" [ edit | edit source ]

Map of Videssos and neighboring nations at the start of the Time of Troubles

Zero+550: Avtokrator Likinios spreads gold among the Khamorth of Pardraya, enticing them to attack Makuran. The ploy succeeds and the Khamorth trap and destroy a great Makuraner Army under Peroz King of Kings, weakening Makuran and allowing a usurper named Smerdis to seize the throne and imprison Sharbaraz, Peroz' son and heir.

Abivard son of Godarz, disgusted at Smerdis, helps free Sharbaraz and launches a rebellion to put Sharbaraz on the throne of Makuran, but they are beaten and driven into Videssos where they implore Likinios for aid. Likinios assists Sharbaraz by sending General Maniakes to help. Sharbaraz beats Smerdis and becomes King of Kings of Makuran.

Likinios is overthrown and killed while forcing his army to stay in Kubrat. Genesios becomes Avtokrator. Makuran invades Videssos, seizing Vaspurakan and the Westlands, prompting Maniakes to rebel and overthrow Genesios, becoming Avtokrator and saving Videssos from Makuran.

The Time of Krispos [ edit | edit source ]

Zero+700: Avtokrator Rhaptes dies and is succeeded by his son Anthimos III under the regency of his uncle Petronas. Krispos rises to prominence in Videssos. Harvas Black-Robe leads an army of Halogai, rampaging across Thatagush and then Kubrat upon the invitation of Petronas so he can invade Makuran. Krispos helps Anthimos remove his uncle. Anthimos attempts to slay Krispos by magic, but fails and kills himself. Krispos becomes Avtokrator and defeats Harvas and conquers Kubrat. He also crushes the Thanasiot rebellion.

During the next five hundred years, minor border changes occur between Agder and Halogaland and between Khatrish and Thatagush. Haloga pirates conquer the Videssian island province of Kalavria, becoming the new nation of Namdalen and the Phos' Wager theology flourishes.

Zero+1100: Avtokrator Khoirosphaktes establishes a fort in Pardraya on the Kouphis River as a gift to a powerful Khamorth khagan. It was abandoned after his death.

Zero+1150: The Arshaum invade western Pardraya, driving the Khamorth over the Shaum (formerly Mylasa) River. Avshar (Rhavas) uses magic to slay Varahran King of Kings of Makuran and allows a Khamorth clan called the Yezda to invade and conquer Makuran and Vaspurakan. Avshar establishes himself as a prince in Yezd (formerly Makuran) and teaches the cult of Skotos to the Yezda who begin raiding and attacking Videssos.

The Time of the Legion [ edit | edit source ]

Map of Videssos and neighboring nations at the Time of the Legion

Zero+1200: Avtokrator Ioannakis III is replaced by Avtokrator Strobilos Sphrantzes who in turn is overthrown by Avtokrator Mavrikios Gavras. The Roman Legion under Marcus Aemilius Scaurus arrives in Videssos. Mavrikios goes to war with Yezd but is defeated and killed by Avshar, allowing Ortaias Sphrantzes to seize the throne. Thorisin Gavras overthrows Ortaias and becomes Avtokrator, beating rebellions by Baanes Onomagoulos and the Great Count Drax. Avshar overthrows Khagan Wulghash of Yezd and launches and all out war to destroy Videssos but is stopped by Patriarch Balsamon, Marcus Scaurus, Viridovix son of Drappes, and Avtokrator Thoirisin. Avshar is defeated forever and the Yezda withdraw to Yezd proper.

Watch the video: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία Age of history II twitch stream