We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
The longest river in the world, measured from its mouth to its most distant, year-round source, is likely the Amazon, which flows 4,345 miles from the Peruvian Andes through Brazil to the Atlantic Ocean. However, much depends on how you measure it. Until 2007, the title belonged to the Nile, which runs 4,258 miles from the mountains of Burundi to its famed and fertile delta fan, where Egypt meets the Mediterranean Sea. The two lengths are close enough that measuring techniques and philosophies can be quite controversial. In fact, the geographers who crowned the Amazon champion were funded in part by the Brazilian government.
The Ancient Egyptians were familiar with the Nile as far upstream as today’s Khartoum, Sudan, some 1,700 miles from the river’s mouth. In A.D. 150 Ptolemy, the famed Greek geographer living in Roman Egypt, wrote that the river originated in the “Mountains of the Moon” deep in the African interior. In 1862 English explorer John Hanning Speke journeyed from Africa’s east coast to find what he considered to be the source, where the river exits Lake Victoria in present-day Uganda.
Geographers did not explore the Amazon’s most distant sources until the mid-20th century, and it was only with the advent of GPS technologies that ever-more accurate estimates, like the 2007 survey, were made possible. Great rivers change course over the seasons and the years, making it difficult to determine which measurement comprises its accurate length. As the crow flies, it is about 2,400 miles from the Nile’s source to its outlet (the meandering Amazon covers a mere 1,100 miles of straight-line distance).
The Euphrates River
Mesopotamia was the area between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Euphrates is described as the southernmost of the two rivers but also appears on maps to the west of the Tigris. It starts in eastern Turkey, flows through Syria and into Mesopotamia (Iraq) before joining the Tigris to flow into the Persian Gulf.
The Xia Dynasty
The final part of the Mythical Period was under the rule of the legendary Xia Dynasty, which may have been mythological. After the final ruler became corrupt, he was overthrown by Cheng Tang, who founded the Shang Dynasty.
Recall characteristics of the Xia Dynasty
- Sima Qian ‘s “Historical Records,” the first comprehensive history of China, said that the last of the Five Emperors, Emperor Shun, left his throne to Yu the Great, who founded the Xia Dynasty.
- The Xia Dynasty was the first Chinese dynasty it is still not known whether this dynasty existed or is only mythological.
- According to mythology, when the last Xia king became corrupt and cruel, Cheng Tang overthrew him in c. 1760 BCE and founded the Shang Dynasty.
- Many argue that the Zhou Dynasty, which ruled China much later, invented the idea of the Xia Dynasty to support their claim that China could only be, and had always been, ruled by one ruler.
- Mandate of Heaven: The Chinese philosophical concept of the circumstances under which a ruler is allowed to rule. Good rulers were allowed to rule under the Mandate of heaven, while despotic, unjust rulers had the Mandate revoked.
- Sima Qian: A renowned Chinese historiographer of the 2nd century BCE who wrote about the Xia Dynasty.
- Shang Dynasty: Also called the Yin Dynasty, succeeded the Xia Dynasty and followed the Zhou Dynasty. It existed in the second millennium BCE.
Sima Qian’s Historical Records
The earliest comprehensive history of China is the Historical Records, written by Sima Qian, a renowned Chinese historiographer of the 2nd century BCE. This history begins around 3600 BCE, with an account of the Five Emperors. According to this history, the last of the great Five Emperors, Emperor Shun, left his throne to Yu the Great, who founded China’s First Dynasty, the Xia Dynasty. Yu supposedly began the practice of inherited rule (passing power from father to son), a model that was perpetuated in the later Shang and Zhou dynasties.
Depiction of Yu the Great: This hanging scroll shows Yu the Great, as imagined by Song Dynasty painter Ma Lin.
According to mythology, Yu’s descendants ruled China for nearly 500 years, until the last Xia king became corrupt and cruel. This led to his overthrow in c. 1760 BCE by Cheng Tang, who founded a new dynasty, the Shang Dynasty, in the Huang River Valley.
Sima Qian’s Historical Records: The first page of Sima Qian’s Historical Records.
Debate Over the Existence of the Xia Dynasty
There is much debate among scholars about how much of this mythology is true. Many argue that the Zhou Dynasty, which ruled China much later, invented the idea of the Xia Dynasty to support their claim that China could only be, and had always been, ruled by one ruler. The Zhou created the idea of the “Mandate of Heaven,” which stated that there could be only one legitimate ruler of China at any given time. If he was a good ruler, he would have the support of heaven if he was despotic, he would be overthrown. The various small states that had comprised Neolithic and Bronze Age China contradicted this version of history. Some people argue, therefore, that the Zhou may have created the idea of an ancient Xia Dynasty to support the idea that China always had one ruler.
Nonetheless, the Xia Dynasty may not be a complete fabrication recent archaeological evidence may support its existence. (For a long time it was believed that the later Shang Dynasty may also have been purely mythological, until archaeology proved that it was real.) Archaeologists have discovered an advanced Bronze Age culture in China. Its capital, Erlitou, was a huge city around 2000 BCE. This may in fact be the people referred to in Chinese mythology as the Xia. It is believed that the Xia may have created a primitive writing system, though no evidence of this has been found. However, evidence does suggest that the Xia developed agricultural methods and experienced considerable prosperity. However, lack of irrigation and flood protection made the region prone to frequent floods and other natural disasters.
List [ edit | edit source ]
Tigranes was named as the king of kings.
ΐ] Α] ||1975||From the landing of Columbus in the Americas to the abandonment of the last African colony of Western Sahara.||Was among the first truly global empires
Β] ||1999||Was the longest lived of the colonial Western European empires. From the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the hand over of Macau 1999.||Was one of the first truly global empires.
Huang He Valley
The areas surrounding China&rsquos second-longest river were home to the oldest dynasties of ancient China, making the Huang He Valley the birthplace of Chinese civilization.
Anthropology, Geography, Human Geography, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations, World History
Huang He Valley
The Huang He (Yellow River) Valley is the birthplace of Chinese Civilization. The Yellow River is the second largest river in China and one of the longest river systems in the world.
Huang He Valley (or in English, Yellow River Valley) was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, and for that reason is often called &ldquoMother River.&rdquo The valley surrounds the principal river of northern China and is at the center of thousands of years of Chinese history. At over 5,400 kilometers (3,300 miles) long, the Huang He is China&rsquos second-longest river. It has a drainage basin of around 750,000 square kilometers (290,000 square miles), the third largest basin area in China. It is called the Yellow River because its waters carry silt, which give the river its yellow-brown color, and when the river overflows, it leaves a yellow residue behind. While the river helps create fertile land that is suited for farming, during certain times of the year the Huang He frequently overflows. The water damages housing and crops across the North China Plain, an important agricultural region. Because of this, the Huang He is also nicknamed &ldquoChina&rsquos Sorrow.&rdquo For thousands of years, the Chinese have embarked on major public works projects to control and irrigate the water from the Huang He, including hydroelectric dams in modern times. Despite the possibility of flooding, the Huang He Valley basin is home to a huge population, and many of China&rsquos oldest cities are situated along the river.
It is hard to say exactly when villages and tribes began arising in the Huang He Valley, but most scholars agree that a major power consolidation occurred from around 2100 to 1600 B.C.E., creating the Xia Dynasty. During that time, tribal leaders came together to try to solve the problem of the Huang He overflowing and wiping out their villages and crops. Da Yu, or Yu the Great, is a mythological figure who created systems to control the floods in the Huang He Valley, and is credited as the first leader of the Xia Dynasty. With the ability to better control the Huang He and save their crops from flooding, Chinese leaders were able to solidify their rule of China, and a number of dynasties headquartered in the region followed. The valley became the center of Chinese culture, society, and learning.
The Huang He (Yellow River) Valley is the birthplace of Chinese Civilization. The Yellow River is the second largest river in China and one of the longest river systems in the world.
Twenty-five longest-reigning monarchs of states that were internationally sovereign for most or all of their reign.
|1||Louis XIV ||France||14 May 1643||1 September 1715||26,407||72 years, 110 days|
|2||Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) ||Thailand||9 June 1946||13 October 2016||25,694||70 years, 126 days|
|3||Johann II ||Liechtenstein||12 November 1858||11 February 1929||25,658||70 years, 91 days|
|4||Elizabeth II ||United Kingdom |
New Zealand  [a]
|6 February 1952 ||Incumbent||25,343||69 years, 140 days|
|5||Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal I ||Palenque||29 July 615 [b]||31 August 683||24,870||68 years, 33 days|
|6||Franz Joseph I ||Austria |
|2 December 1848||21 November 1916||24,825||67 years, 355 days|
|7||Constantine VIII [c] ||Byzantine Empire||30 March 962||11 November 1028||24,332||66 years, 226 days|
|8||Basil II [d] ||22 April 960||15 December 1025||23,977||65 years, 237 days|
|9||Ferdinand III ||Sicily||6 October 1759||4 January 1825||23,831||65 years, 90 days|
|10||Victoria ||United Kingdom||20 June 1837||22 January 1901||23,226||63 years, 216 days|
|11||James I ||Aragon||12 September 1213||27 July 1276||22,964||62 years, 319 days|
|12||Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa) [e] ||Japan||25 December 1926||7 January 1989||22,659||62 years, 13 days|
|13||Kangxi Emperor [f] ||China (Qing dynasty)||5 February 1661||20 December 1722||22,597||61 years, 318 days|
|14||Qianlong Emperor [g] ||18 October 1735||9 February 1796||22,029||60 years, 114 days|
|15||Friedrich Günther ||Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt||28 April 1807||28 June 1867||21,976||60 years, 61 days|
|16||Christian IV ||Denmark-Norway||4 April 1588||28 February 1648||21,879||59 years, 330 days|
|17||Kilhan  |
[ unreliable source? ]
[ better source needed ]
|Dhundhar||16 December 1216||18 October 1276||21,856||59 years, 307 days|
|18||George III ||Great Britain [h] |
United Kingdom [h]
|25 October 1760||29 January 1820||21,644||59 years, 96 days|
|19||Honoré III ||Monaco||7 November 1733||19 January 1793||21,623||59 years, 73 days|
|20||Elizabeth II  ||Jamaica||6 August 1962||Incumbent||21,509||58 years, 324 days|
|21||Louis XV ||France||1 September 1715||10 May 1774||21,436||58 years, 251 days|
|22||Pedro II ||Brazil||7 April 1831||15 November 1889||21,407||58 years, 222 days|
|23||Nicholas I ||Montenegro||13 August 1860||26 November 1918||21,288||58 years, 105 days|
|24||Honoré I ||Monaco||22 August 1523||7 October 1581||21,231||58 years, 46 days|
|25||Wilhelmina ||Netherlands||23 November 1890||4 September 1948||21,104||57 years, 286 days|
|Updated daily according to UTC.|
The table below contains monarchs of states that were not internationally sovereign for most of their reign.
"(HRE)" indicates a semi-sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and a reign that concluded before the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. "(HRE*)" indicates a reign that began when the state was within the Empire and continued after its dissolution.
|1||Sobhuza II [j]||Swaziland (British protectorate until 1968)||10 December 1899||21 August 1982||30,204||82 years, 254 days|
|2||Bernhard VII||Lippe (HRE)||12 August 1429||2 April 1511||29,818||81 years, 234 days|
|3||William IV||Henneberg-Schleusingen (HRE)||26 May 1480||24 January 1559||28,731||78 years, 243 days|
|4||Karansinhji ||Lakhtar State (part of British Raj from 1858)||15 June 1846||8 August 1924||28,543||78 years, 54 days|
|5||Heinrich XI [k]  ||Reuss-Obergreiz (HRE)||17 March 1723||28 June 1800||28,227||77 years, 103 days|
|6||Idris ibni Muhammad al-Qadri,  Tunku Besar of Tampin||Tampin (Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia) (part of British Malaya until 1957)||31 May 1929||26 December 2005||27,968||76 years, 209 days|
|7||Christian August||Palatinate-Sulzbach (HRE)||14 August 1632||23 April 1708||27,645||75 years, 253 days|
|8||Mudhoji IV Rao Naik Nimbalkar||Phaltan (part of British Raj from 1858)||7 December 1841||17 October 1916||27,342||74 years, 315 days|
|9||Bhagvatsingh Sahib||Gondal state (British Raj)||14 December 1869||10 March 1944||27,114||74 years, 87 days|
|10||George William||Schaumburg-Lippe (HRE*) (Between 1807 and 1815 part of the Confederation of the Rhine, from 1815 part of the German Confederation.)||13 February 1787||21 November 1860||26,944||73 years, 282 days|
|11||Charles Frederick||Baden (HRE*)||12 May 1738||10 June 1811||26,691||73 years, 29 days|
|12||John Louis||Nassau-Saarbrücken (HRE)||19 October 1472||4 June 1545||26,525||72 years, 228 days [l]|
|13||Henry Frederick||Hohenlohe-Langenburg (HRE)||29 January 1628||5 August 1699||26,121||71 years, 188 days|
|14||Jagatjit Singh||Kapurthala (British Raj)||3 September 1877||20 August 1948||25,918||70 years, 352 days [m]|
|15||Parashuramrao Shrinivas||Aundh (India)||30 August 1777||11 June 1848||25,852||70 years, 286 days|
|16||Franz Karl||Fürstenberg-Donaueschingen (HRE)||15 November 1627||19 July 1698||25,814||70 years, 246 days|
|17||Karl August||Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (HRE*)||28 May 1758||14 June 1828||25,584||70 years, 17 days|
|18||Alberico I [it]||Massa and Carrara (HRE)||6 June 1553||18 January 1623||25,428||69 years, 226 days|
|19||Werner||Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (HRE)||31 October 1559||16 February 1629||25,311||69 years, 108 days|
|20||Heinrich Joseph Johann||Auersperg (HRE)||6 November 1713||9 February 1783||25,297||69 years, 95 days|
|21||Frederick III [n]||Inner Austria (HRE)||10 June 1424||19 August 1493||25,272||69 years, 70 days|
|22||George William||Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (HRE)||16 December 1600||25 December 1669||25,211||69 years, 9 days|
|23||George I||Anhalt-Dessau (HRE)||24 September 1405||21 September 1474||25,199||68 years, 362 days|
|24||Frederick V||Hesse-Homburg (HRE*)||7 February 1751||20 January 1820||25,183||68 years, 347 days|
|25||Vikramatji Khimojiraj [ citation needed ]||Porbandar (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858)||20 June 1831||21 April 1900||25,142||68 years, 305 days|
|26||Krishnaraja Wadiyar III||Mysore (British Subsidiary alliance, then part of British Raj from 1858)||30 June 1799||27 March 1868||25,107||68 years, 271 days|
|27||Johann Friedrich [de]||Castell-Rüdenhausen (HRE)||10 January 1681||23 June 1749||25,000||68 years, 164 days|
|28||Sawant Singh [ citation needed ]||Pratapgarh (India)||26 October 1775||5 January 1844||24,907||68 years, 71 days|
|29||Christian Karl Reinhard||Leiningen-Dagsburg (HRE)||3 November 1698||17 November 1766||24,850||68 years, 14 days|
|30||Ram Singh||Bundi State (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858) [ citation needed ]||14 May 1821||28 March 1889||24,790||67 years, 318 days|
|31||Malietoa Tanumafili II||Samoa||7 January 1940||11 May 2007||24,596||67 years, 124 days|
|32||Henry III||Meissen (HRE)||18 January 1221||15 February 1288||24,499||67 years, 28 days|
|33||Eleanor [o]||Aquitaine (France)||9 April 1137||1 April 1204||24,464||66 years, 358 days|
|34||Augustus||Anhalt-Plötzkau(HRE)||6 December 1586||22 August 1653||24,366||66 years, 259 days|
|35||Amarsinhji Banesinhji [p]||Wankaner (British Raj)||12 June 1881||15 February 1948||24,353||66 years, 248 days|
|36||Khengarji III||Cutch (British Raj)||19 December 1875||15 January 1942||24,133||66 years, 27 days|
|37||Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah||Sultanate of Serdang (Indonesia)||20 December 1879||4 December 1945||24,090||65 years, 349 days|
|38||Leopold III||Anhalt-Dessau (HRE)||16 December 1751||9 August 1817||23,977||65 years, 236 days|
|39||John I||Brittany (France)||21 October 1221||8 October 1286||23,728||64 years, 352 days|
|40||Frederick William||Hohenzollern-Hechingen (HRE)||13 January 1671||14 November 1735||23,680||64 years, 305 days|
|41||Albert V||Anhalt-Dessau (HRE)||24 September 1405||24 September 1469||23,376||64 years, 0 days|
|42||Ibrahim||Johor, Malaysia (part of British Malaya until 1957)||4 June 1895||8 May 1959||23,348||63 years, 338 days|
|43||Sayajirao Gaekwad III||Baroda State (British Raj)||27 May 1875||6 February 1939||23,265||63 years, 256 days|
|44||Albert Anton||Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (HRE)||4 November 1646||24 June 1710||23,242||63 years, 232 days|
|45||Anton Günther||Oldenburg (HRE)||12 November 1603||19 June 1667||23,230||63 years, 219 days|
|46||Frederick Augustus I [q]||Saxony (HRE*)||17 December 1763||5 May 1827||23,149||63 years, 139 days|
|47||Ludwig I [r]||Anhalt (HRE)||6 December 1586||January 7, 1650||23,043||63 years, 32 days|
|48||Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa||Bahrain (British protectorate from 1880)||1 December 1869||9 December 1932||23,018||63 years, 8 days|
|49||Charles III||Upper Lorraine (HRE)||12 June 1545||14 May 1608||22,982||62 years, 337 days|
|50||Johann Friedrich II||Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE)||17 October 1702||24 August 1765||22,957||62 years, 311 days|
|51||Bernhard II||Saxe-Meiningen (HRE*)||24 December 1803||20 September 1866||22,916||62 years, 270 days|
|52||Philip II||Nassau-Weilburg (HRE)||2 July 1429||19 March 1492||22,906||62 years, 261 days [s]|
|53||Nicolas Leopold I||Salm-Hoogstraat (HRE)||6 June 1707||4 February 1770||22,889||62 years, 243 days|
|54||Christian II [t]||Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler (HRE)||16 September 1654||25 April 1717||22,866||62 years, 221 days|
|55||Léopold Philippe||Arenberg (HRE)||19 August 1691||4 March 1754||22,842||62 years, 197 days|
|56||Muhammad Ibrahim Ali Khan||Tonk (British Raj)||20 December 1867||23 June 1930||22,830||62 years, 185 days|
|57||Saqr bin Mohammed Al Qasimi||Ras Al Khaimah (part of the British Protectorate of Trucial states until 1971, then the United Arab Emirates)||17 July 1948||27 October 2010||22,747||62 years, 102 days|
|58||Nahar Singh||Shahpura (British Raj)||21 April 1870||24 June 1932||22,709||62 years, 64 days [ citation needed ]|
|59||Franz William||Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedbur (HRE)||1 January 1673||31 December 1734||22,643||61 years, 364 days|
|60||Tuanku Abdul Hamid Halim Shah||Kedah Sultanate (British Malaya)||22 September 1881||13 May 1943||22,512||61 years, 233 days|
|61||Philip IV||Waldeck-Wildungen (HRE)||28 May 1513||30 November 1574||22,466||61 years, 186 days|
|62||Wakhat Singh Dalil Singh||Lunavada (British Raj)||31 October 1867||27 April 1929||22,458||61 years, 178 days|
|63||Paku Alam VIII||Pakualaman (Indonesia)||12 April 1937||11 September 1998||22,432||61 years, 152 days|
|64||Victor Amadeus||Anhalt-Bernburg (HRE)||22 September 1656||14 February 1718||22,424||61 years, 145 days|
|65||Lakshman Singh, Maharawal of Banswara||Banswara State (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858)||2 February 1844||29 April 1905||22,366||61 years, 86 days [ citation needed ]|
|65||Ulrich V||Württemberg-Stuttgart (HRE)||2 July 1419||1 September 1480||22,342||61 years, 61 days [u]|
|67||Ranbir Singh||Jind (British Raj)||7 March 1887||31 March 1948||22,304||61 years, 24 days [v] [ citation needed ]|
|68||Ernst Ludwig||Hesse-Darmstadt (HRE)||31 August 1678||12 September 1739||22,291||61 years, 12 days|
|69||Johann Friedrich I||Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE)||11 October 1641||17 October 1702||22,285||61 years, 6 days|
|70||Wilhelm Moritz II||Isenburg-Philippseich (HRE)||8 March 1711||7 March 1772||22,280||60 years, 365 days|
|71||Christian Ernest||Stolberg-Wernigerode (HRE)||9 November 1710||25 October 1771||22,265||60 years, 350 days|
|72||Adolf III||Schauenburg and Holstein (HRE)||6 July 1164||3 January 1225||22,096||60 years, 181 days|
|73||Leopold Louis||Palatinate-Veldenz (HRE)||3 June 1634||29 September 1694||22,033||60 years, 118 days|
|74||Johann Jakob I||Waldburg-Zeil (HRE)||4 May 1614 [w]||18 April 1674||21,899||59 years, 349 days|
|75||Gustav Adolph||Mecklenburg-Güstrow (HRE)||23 April 1636||6 October 1695||21,715||59 years, 166 days|
|76||George Frederick I||Brandenburg-Ansbach (HRE)||27 December 1543||25 April 1603||21,669||59 years, 119 days|
|77||Charles I||Hesse-Kassel (HRE)||1 December 1670||23 March 1730||21,661||59 years, 112 days|
|78||Marie Teresa Cybo-Malaspina||Massa and Carrara (HRE)||17 October 1731||29 December 1790||21,623||59 years, 73 days|
|79||Abdul Halim||Kedah Sultanate (Malaysia)||14 July 1958||11 September 2017||21,609||59 years, 59 days|
|80||Pakubuwono XII||Surakarta (Indonesia)||11 June 1945||11 June 2004||21,550||59 years, 0 days |
|81||Barnim I||Pomerania-Stettin (HRE)||23 January 1220||13 December 1278||21,509||58 years, 324 days |
|82||Ludovico I||Saluzzo (HRE)||October 1416||8 April 1475||21,373||58 years, 189 days|
|83||Philip||Hesse-Philippsthal (HRE)||16 July 1663||18 June 1721||21,156||57 years, 337 days|
|84||Philipp I||Nassau-Weilburg (HRE)||20 September 1371||2 July 1429||21,104||57 years, 285 days|
|85||Philipp I||Hesse (HRE)||11 July 1509||31 March 1567||21,082||57 years, 263 days|
These monarchs are grouped according to length of reign by year in whole numbers. Within each year-grouping, they appear in historical order. In a given year, there may have been a wide array of actual reign lengths based on days. Thus, this table does not present a precise ranking by length of reign. The list is limited to those that might reasonably be expected to lie within the range of those in the tables above, at minimum 57 years.
Japanese legendary emperors, according to the ancient Japanese calendar, reigned for very long terms of 60–70 years each. The longest ruler of the legendary emperors, Emperor Kōan, was claimed to have reigned for about 101 years. These figures are not included in the table because they are regarded as inaccurate by modern scholars. For those see Longevity myths.
Source: By Ernest Brooks – Public Domain
When the German army launched the attack on Verdun, the Allied forces (British and French) had already determined to attack German strongholds on the River Somme. As a result, the French could not commit the promised troops to the offensive as they were defending their positions at Verdun. This caused the British troops to be overrun on the first day. They lost just over 57,000 soldiers.
Yet, over the course of several battles for the forts and strongholds near the Somme, the British and French eventually overwhelmed German defenses that were dug in to trenches.
Did You Know?
This was the first instance of the heavy use of tanks in ground combat. Most of the tanks broke down during battle.
Key Facts & Information
- The Yellow River has been involved in several deadly floods that have happened in the history of China. Some of these deadly floods include the 1332-1333 flood during the Yuan dynasty, the 1887 flood during the Qing dynasty, and the 1931 flood during the Republic of China era.
- The 1887 Qing dynasty flood killed around 900,000 to 2 million people, while the 1931 Republic of China flood killed around 1 million to 4 million people.
- The main cause of these floods is the large amount of fine-grained loess that the river carries from the Loess Plateau.
- The sedimentation creates natural dams, and due to the enormous amount of water, the water has to find new ways to the sea, which eventually causes floods.
- The Yellow River rises in southern Qinghai province on the Plateau of Tibet and then crosses six provinces and two autonomous regions.
- These include Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, and Shandong.
- Currently, the mouth of the Yellow River is located in Kenli County in in Shandong.
- The following are the tributaries of the Yellow River: White River, Black River, Datong River, Daxia River, Tao River, Zuli River, Qingshui River, Dahei River, Kuye River, Wuding River, Fen River, Wei River, Luo River, Qin River, Dawen River, and Kuo River.
- The Yellow River is divided into three parts: a mountainous upper course, a middle course across a plateau, and a lower course across a low plain.
- The upper course of the river crosses two large bodies of water, Ngoring Lake and Gyaring Lake. These bodies of water are rich in fish but freeze over during the winter season.
- The upper course consists mainly of inaccessible, highly mountainous, sparsely populated terrain with a cold climate.
- The middle course flows northeast through the sandy soils of Ningxia and Ordos Plateau.
- Then, the river turns eastward and flows through the alluvial plains in Inner Mongolia.
- The river then turns southward and forms the border between the Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces.
- The lower course flows through Henan and Shandong provinces across the North China Plain.
- The Yellow River has changed its course across the North China Plain several times. Due to this, inhabitants of the region have built extensive systems of levees and irrigation works in an attempt to control the river’s flow.
- The tributaries of the Yellow River include the White River, Black River, Huang Shui, Daxia River, Tao River, Zuli River, Qingshui River, Dahei River, Kuye River, Wuding River, Fen River, Wei River, Luo River, Qin River, Dawen River, and Kuo River.
- There are also bridges and ferries situated along the Yellow River.
- Some of these include the Jinan Yellow River Bridge, Luokou Yellow River Railway Bridge, Kaifeng Yellow River Bridge, Yinchuan Yellow River Bridge, and Zhongshan Bridge.
- The Yellow River is rich in fish. However, due to overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution, there has been a decline in the fish population.
- Cyprinidae is the most diverse family in the Yellow River basin.
- Some other families that can be found in the Yellow River include stone loaches, gobies, true loaches, and bagrid catfish.
- The upper part of the Yellow River is dominated by salmonids.
- In contrast, the lower part of the Yellow River is home to many brackish species, like gobies, Asian seabasses, flatfish, and Takifugu pufferfish.
- Other fish in the Yellow River include Asian carp, northern snakehead, and Asian swamp eel.
- Two turtle species are native to the Yellow River basin. These two species are the Chinese pond turtle and the Chinese softshell turtle.
- The Chinese giant salamander is native to the Yellow River and to other Chinese rivers. It is largely farmed for food and traditional medicinal uses.
- Severe pollution due to factory discharges, wastes, and other factors has made parts of the Yellow River unusable for agricultural and industrial use.
- The Yellow River and its floods have been central to the legend, folklore, and written history of Chinese civilization.
- Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, a Russian traveler, was the first European to explore the upper reaches of the Yellow River in 1879 and 1884.
- Systematic study of the river basin was first done in the 1950s by Chinese and Soviet scientists.
Yellow River Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Yellow River across 23 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Yellow River worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Yellow River, also known as Huang He, which is best known as the second-longest river in China and sixth-longest river system in the world.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Yellow River Facts
- The Yellow River
- Along The River
- In The River
- Turtle Species
- Let’s Clean!
Link/cite this page
If you reference any of the content on this page on your own website, please use the code below to cite this page as the original source.
Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.
Egypt Nile River Facts
The Nile river used to provide the ancient Egyptians with fertile land. The soil along the Nile was rich with different growing crops, which are wheat “the main Egyptians staple food”, papyrus “that were used in paper, baskets, and sandals”, and flax “that was used in manufacturing linen clothes for clothing”. The Nile River has always been the life source for all living creatures since the Stone Age. The Nile has made life in the Egyptian desert possible. It provides drinking water, a source of irrigation for crops, and the most important thing is the fertile soil used to grow crops.
Without the Nile River, the ancient Egyptian Civilization would not have survived. It has made it easy for cities and civilizations along the Nile to grow. Through the Nile, The ancient Egyptians have developed methods for the irrigation system, which helped them to grow and to have such a unique civilization. The Nile river is considered to be a weapon that protects Egypt from the upcoming water war. Egypt without the Nile is just a desert.
What is the longest river in the world? - HISTORY
Exodus 7:17 - Thus saith the LORD, In this thou shalt know that I [am] the LORD: behold, I will smite with the rod that [is] in mine hand upon the waters which [are] in the river, and they shall be turned to blood.
Map of The Nile River (Old Testament)
Egypt and the Nile River. The land of Egypt was blessed with the Nile River, and everything near this river was fruitful. Egypt was truly called "the gift of the Nile", and without this magnificent river everything around would be a desert. In Egypt the desert is everywhere, but along both sides of the Nile River is black mud which created lush farmland. The great mountains of Africa carry rich soil into Egypt via the Nile River. Nearly every year the Nile River would overflow its banks, when the snow on the mountains had melted. This would cause the soil near the banks of the Nile to be very rich and fertile, and this is the reason why Egypt was called "the gift of the Nile".
Geographical Facts. The Nile River is the longest river in the entire world, flowing over 4000 miles from its origin down in Central Africa and dumping into the Mediterranean Sea. In fact the river flows from south to north which is very unusual for a river. The Nile River is between 2 miles and 30 miles wide depending on where you are along the river. If one were to park along the bank of the river and walk on shore, there would be lush dark soil or "black mud" for a period of time, and suddenly it would become dry sandy desert colored red. In the ancient world when people noticed this dark line running down the landscape, they describe it as looking like a thread, and the Egyptians referred to it as "Redland Blackland." The Egyptians built their homes in the desert a short distance away from the rich dark black thread of soil. According to Genesis 10 the father of Egypt was Noah's grandson Mizraim whose name comes from two words that means "red soil" and "two Matzor or Egypts" which no doubt alludes to the red color of the desert sand, and a prophecy of the dual nature of Upper and Lower Egypt. The modern Arabic name for Egypt is Muzr.
The Nile Delta. At the northernmost portion of the Nile River, also known as the mouth, there is the great Nile Delta. In fact this is the meaning of the word Delta, when a river flows for a very long time the mouth begins to form many channels. The word Delta is actually the fourth letter in the Greek alphabet and looks like a triangle, with a point on one end and a fan on the opposite end, and this fan provides the imagery of the mouth of a river. The Delta never stops widening because of the new soil deposits.
Etymology of the word "Nile". The Greek word Nilus is not an Egyptian word or meaning, nor is the Semitic word Nahar which means river. The ancient Egyptians revealed the meaning in the hieroglyphic names of the river, in reference to various gods and goddesses, for example Isis, and the natural attributes of the Nile River attributed to her. Hapi means that "overspreads", Nu means that is "lifted up". Uka speaks of what "gushes forth". Akba Ura speaks of "great weeping", when the Nile overflows its banks. The ancient Egyptians also spoke of the river as a divine serpent.
Genesis 12:9-10 - "And Abram journeyed, going on still toward the south. And there was a famine in the land: and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there for the famine was grievous in the land."
[Maps are free to use for personal, classroom, or church use]