The Battle of Britain, Kate Moore

The Battle of Britain, Kate Moore


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

The Battle of Britain, Kate Moore

The Battle of Britain, Kate Moore

There are a lot of books on the Battle of Britain, so a new one has to have something different to stand out from the crowd. In this case I’d say that difference is the scale of the introduction, which takes up the first half of the book. This includes sections on the development of the main aircraft of the battle, the history of the two air forces, and their nature in 1940, the training and tactics of their pilots and so forth, followed by a brief account of the German victories of 1939-40 and the role of air power in them.

After that the account of the battle itself is good but fairly standard, with a nice use of eyewitness accounts from the Imperial War Museum archives and very good pictures. The story is covered from both sides, although more of the eyewitness accounts come from the British side.

There is a good balance of text and pictures, and the book is somewhat normal than the Osprey standard format, so there is plenty of space for both.

If you don’t have a recent book on the Battle of Britain, then this will be a good choice. If not, then the first half makes it worth considering.

Chapters
Fighter Command
The Luftwaffe
Blitzkrieg: Germany's Lightning Strike
Spitfire Summer: The Air Battle for Britain
Aftermath

Author: Kate Moore
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 200
Publisher: Osprey
Year: 2015 edition of 2010 original



ISBN 13: 9781846034749

Published in association with the Imperial War Museum in London to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Britain, this book brings one of the most important battles of World War II to life. Lavishly illustrated with photographs, contemporary art and propaganda posters, and accompanied by numerous first-hand accounts, The Battle of Britain captures the reality and the romance of a defining chapter in British history. Moreover, it offers a detailed analysis of the events immediately preceding the battle, the key strategic decisions by opposing commanders that altered the course of the battle, as well as the development of criticial weaponry and defenses that dramatically changed the way aerial combat was fought.

Moore's book pays tribute to visionaries such as R. J. Mitchell and Air Chief Marshall Lord Dowding, who ensured that, rather than simply a victory snatched from the jaws of defeat, this was a battle for which Britain's Fighter Command was uniquely prepared. Such preparation nearly guaranteed that although the British were vastly outnumbered, they could confidently counter the German fighter planes and bombers that darkened the skies throughout the summer of 1940. It was this small band of men and women, covered in detail in this title, that were the first to successfully oppose the seemingly unstoppable tide of the Nazi war machine, irrevocably altering the course of the rest of the war.

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

Kate Moore studied Modern History at the University of Cape Town and completed a Masters in the same subject at Oxford University, where her final thesis was on the Battle of Britain. She has an interest in all periods of history but her first love will always be the key events of 1940. Based in the Osprey editorial office, she works on a variety of titles, but this is the first book she has written for Osprey.

"Appropriately released in time for the 70th anniversary of the onslaught, the book provides not only the history of the BoB, but also an analysis of events from both sides of the conflict. In here you'll find the aircraft, the airmen, the commanders, and other personalities with the RAF and the Luftwaffe. It is a superbly written book that brings everything to life. It is a book that I can easily recommend to you as one that you'll be going to over and over again." - Scott Van Aken, Modeling Madness

"Offer[s] a lavish display packed with modern art, photos, propaganda posters, and first-hand accounts. Any collection strong in British military history must have this!" - The Midwest Book Review

"Photos, wartime posters and drawings, and even a pilot's handwritten diary - mostly culled from the Imperial War Museum's vast archives - makes this one of the most attractive illustrated treatments to appear. The brief, authoritative text is a match for the graphics." -Aviation History (November 2010)

"Moore does a remarkable job of telling the story of not just the Battle itself -- understandably concentrating on the most intense days -- but also the events leading up to it . Not only that, but she writes with style and some verve." -Brett Holman, www.airminded.com

". this solid offering provides background and perspective (and pictures) from both sides of the battle, all laced with apposite first-person memories." -Gene Santoro, World War II Magazine (May/June 2011)


Days of destiny: 5 key dates in the Battle of Britain

What are the key dates in the Battle of Britain? Kate Moore picks out five moments from that fateful summer, when a group of Allied pilots were engaged in desperate battles with their German foes, hoping to secure control of the skies and prevent a Nazi invasion of Britain

This competition is now closed

Published: September 15, 2020 at 11:45 am

Following the collapse of France, the Luftwaffe had spent most of the latter half of June and early July 1940 preparing for the coming battle with the British. As Wintson Churchill electrified the nation with his soaring oratory, strengthened the resolve of the embattled British people and gave them hope, a small band of fighter pilots – just over 700 in total – would indeed act as that thin blue line of defence.

Tentative plans had been made for an invasion of England, codenamed Operation Seelöwe (Sea Lion), but Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, commander of the Luftwaffe, believed that his air force alone could bring Britain to her knees. Göring, however, failed to recognise that the campaigns in the Low Countries and France had taken their brutal toll, and the Luftwaffe could now only muster 1,380 bombers and 428 dive-bombers, nowhere near the 5,000 he liked to boast of in his propaganda.

Supplemented by 1,100 fighters, the Luftwaffe still enjoyed a numerical superiority of almost five to one over the British defenders. But Göring’s bomber pilots should have taken little comfort in this. They were simply ‘potential kills’ for Spitfires and Hurricanes, incapable of attacking the British fighters effectively themselves. If the British pilots were deployed correctly, then the dice would not be as heavily stacked against Fighter Command as is commonly believed. It all came down to how the imminent battle would be fought.

10 July 1940: the official start of the Battle of Britain

The battle began with the Kanalkampf, or Channel Battles phase, when the Germans launched sustained attacks against British shipping to prevent much-needed supplies from reaching the beleaguered British Isles. Such attacks had been taking place since late June, but early July saw a marked increase in the frequency and ferocity.

The tenth of the month was the date later chosen by the RAF as the official start date for the battle proper and this day certainly saw the largest dogfight fought over the Channel up to that point. By sundown the RAF had lost seven planes against the Luftwaffe’s 13. This was an astonishing rate of success for the outnumbered British fighter pilots. German losses should have sent alarm bells ringing within the Luftwaffe high command but instead they chose to believe their own inaccurate intelligence reports that claimed 35 British ‘kills’. It was a portent of things to come.

Explore the Battle of Britain and its wider context in the Second World War

13 August 1940: Eagle Day

With the outcome of the Kanalkampf phase of the battle inconclusive, Göring made plans for an all-out assault against Fighter Command on the British mainland. Codenamed Adlerangriff (Eagle Attack), it was due to commence on 13 August. Yet the weather was to throw German plans into disarray. Grey skies and mist forced the Luftwaffe high command to order a postponement, and when several bombers – unaware of the change in plans – arrived over England unprotected by their fighter escort, they were badly mauled. The Luftwaffe regrouped in the afternoon and, flying in better weather conditions, launched a determined assault.

Throughout August the airfields would come under virtually unremitting attack, causing devastating losses to fighters caught on the ground as well as support crew. But the Luftwaffe continued to rely on faulty intelligence, frequently attacking bases that were not operational fighter stations. A total of 87 RAF aircraft were destroyed on the ground on 13 August, but only one of these was from Fighter Command. Three British pilots were killed, while the Luftwaffe lost almost 90.

Fighter Command could take heart from its performance. The tactic of deploying in small numbers to prevent all available fighters being caught refuelling on the ground was paying dividends. However this policy required nerves of steel from the heavily outnumbered British pilots.

18 August 1940: The Hardest Day

Believing their attacks were decimating the much smaller force of Fighter Command, the Luftwaffe planned a series of ambitious assaults on key British airfields including Kenley, Biggin Hill, Hornchurch and North Weald. With the British pilots putting up a desperate defence, the attacks were soon reaping a grim harvest. In fact, 18 August saw both sides suffering their greatest number of losses so far: 69 German aircraft versus Fighter Command’s 29. It had been a terrible day but just one in an ongoing battle of attrition.

It is little wonder then that many pilots on the frontline of Britain’s defence were beginning to show the strain, as Spitfire pilot Alan Deere recalled: “You were either at readiness or you were in the air. It was pretty tiring. I was bloody tired, I can tell you very tired. My squadron, 54, I think we were down to five of the original pilots so were operating on a bit of a shoestring.”

Listen to historian James Holland describing how the Luftwaffe and RAF fought to control the skies over Britain in 1940, in a talk from our 2015 History Weekend at Malmesbury. He explains how Britain came out on top in one of the pivotal clashes of the Second World War:

7 September 1940: The Blitz begins

Dismayed by the failure to destroy Fighter Command and incensed by a British bombing raid on Berlin, Göring turned his attention to London. Now the citizens of the British capital would feel the full wrath of the Luftwaffe, and in the process either the RAF would be destroyed or the British government would be forced to the negotiating table.

British radar screens lit up as wave after wave of German bombers streamed towards London. It was an astonishing and terrifying sight, 350 Luftwaffe bombers accompanied by 617 German fighter aircraft.

Within an hour, every squadron in a 70-mile radius of the capital was either airborne or waiting to be scrambled. Fighter Command realised too late that the raid’s intended target was not its own airfields – and soon, bomb after bomb began to rain down on the docks, factories and houses below. The British were caught unprepared and lost 28 aircraft and 448 lives in the attacks. But once again there was no definitive result. Another test was required.

15 September 1940: Battle of Britain Day

A spell of bad weather had meant a delay in hostilities on Eagle Day. But 15 September dawned clear and bright. As the first German bombers began to appear one after the other, the British scrambled their fighter squadrons.

Air Vice-Marshal Keith Park, commander of No 11 Group, responsible for the defence of London, famously ordered all his aircraft into the air to defend the capital, abandoning his own policy of deliberate, smaller attacks by individual squadrons.

Drawing on reserves from No 12 Group to the north, the British fighters swarmed around the massed German formations, peeling the fighter escorts off into individual dogfights. It was a tactic that left the bombers unprotected – and they were soon falling in devastating numbers.

Park’s decision was absolutely critical. If the Germans had launched a second mass raid immediately after the first, British fighters would have been caught on the ground refuelling. But Park had banked on the Luftwaffe having no reserves, as was the case with Fighter Command. He took a huge gamble, but battles are not won by the timid. For months the Luftwaffe had believed that Fighter Command was on its last legs and all that was required was a final knock-out blow. As the Germans tallied up their devastating losses, it was clear that they had failed.

Kate Moore is the author of The Battle of Britain (2010), which was published by Osprey in association with the Imperial War Museum


The Few: who exactly were the heroes of the Battle of Britain?

Ahead of the 80th anniversary of the Battle of Britain, military historian Patrick Bishop reflects on the experiences of the ‘fighter boys’ of the RAF, lionised by Winston Churchill as the Few, and how they succeeded in defeating the Luftwaffe

This competition is now closed

Published: July 7, 2020 at 2:00 pm

Eighty summers ago, the inhabitants of the Home Counties witnessed something the world had never seen before and never would again. Day after day, above their heads, air armies waged a gigantic battle – one that would have a decisive effect on the outcome of World War II.

For the first time in British history, a life-or-death struggle was fought out in view of large numbers of the nation’s citizens. The combat took place over the stalwarts of everyday life – above houses, streets and fields.

Those below had only to look up to see an amazing sight: huge flocks of German bombers and escorts crawling across the sky while the RAF’s fighters swirled around them, scribbling chalky condensation trails in the blue and stitching it with the gold and red of tracer ammunition and cannon.

The British people watched with a mixture of fear and excitement and, above all, admiration for the pilots upon whose skill and bravery the fate of the nation so obviously depended.

Your guide to the Battle of Britain: how the RAF turned back the Luftwaffe

The Battle of Britain (10 July – 31 October 1940) was the first major military campaign in history to be fought entirely in the air, described by Churchill as the RAF’s finest hour. What exactly happened, how was the battle won, and what did it mean for Hitler? Get the answers to these questions and more in our full guide to the Battle of Britain.

The story so far

In the summer of 1940, Britain seemed finished. France, with its huge armed forces and the seemingly impregnable defences of the Maginot Line along its German border, had been overwhelmed by Hitler’s forces in just a matter of weeks. The British army had only avoided complete destruction by what seemed like a miracle, when hundreds of thousands of men escaped from the beaches of Dunkirk.

The Germans thought they were invincible. Hitler was convinced that, having seen what had happened to first Poland, then Belgium, Holland and France, the British would soon come to their senses and make peace. And there were plenty of people in Britain’s government – including the Foreign Minister, Lord Halifax – who believed it was time to start negotiations.

But not Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Soon after Dunkirk, he made a fiery speech laying out the grim situation facing the country: Britain had to fight. Otherwise it, along with Europe, would “sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age”.

The Battle of France was over, he told the nation, before proclaiming: “The Battle of Britain is about to begin.” These were chilling words. But instead of cowing his listeners, it created a mood of stubborn determination. Most of all, it inspired the small band of airmen who would determine whether Britain fell.

Hitler’s gambit

Adolf Hitler had not yet made a serious plan to invade Britain. He didn’t think he would have to. If the British government was stupid enough not to sue for peace, then it would not take long for the German air force to persuade them. The Luftwaffe was strong and drunk on victory. The Germans believed that the Royal Air Force would be no match for them.

In this they were very much mistaken. Although very little money had been spent on the British military between the world wars, the lion’s share had gone to the RAF. Some far-sighted planners had ordered modern fighter aircraft – the famous Spitfire and Hurricane – to counter the German threat. They had also invested in the new technology of radar, so they could detect enemy aircraft and direct their fighters to intercept them.

Once Churchill had signalled defiance, the Luftwaffe offensive began. The battle played out in three main phases. In early July, the Germans attacked shipping in the Channel, trying to force the British fighter squadrons based along the coast of southeast England to come up and be chopped down by the supposedly superior Luftwaffe. When that didn’t work, in mid-August they targeted the fighter airfields themselves. Having failed to knock them out, the Germans switched to bombing raids on London.

By mid-September, it was clear they had failed – Hitler would never win control of Britain’s skies, nor invade its islands. This was the first time since the war began that the Germans had been beaten anywhere. It was a great moment, showing that the tide of the war could be turned by determination and skill.

The battle was a victory for British technology – in the shape of the Spitfire and Hurricane as well as radar – and of the leadership provided by Churchill and the head of Fighter Command, Hugh Dowding. But above all, it was a triumph for the young men – called ‘the Few’ by Churchill – who flew the aircraft. They were the real stars of the Battle of Britain.

Credit for famous victories typically goes to commanders: Agincourt belonged to Henry V, Trafalgar to Horatio Nelson, and Waterloo to the Duke of Wellington. This time, though, the glory went to a small but very unusual group. Significantly, its members were not drawn exclusively from the upper classes. They came from every level of society and were, as proclaimed by the newspapers and radio of the time, “ordinary people doing extraordinary things”.

Listen: historian James Holland describes how the Luftwaffe and RAF fought to control the skies over Britain in 1940

What was Fighter Command?

In the summer of 1940, the pilots of Fighter Command were the nation’s poster boys. People spoke of them as if they were their own sons. They were the ‘fighter boys’ – a term that reflected the fact the pilots were, on average, only 20 years old. Many were still too young to vote. The media was fascinated by them, and the government was only too eager to play along, building up their image in lots of interviews and photo ops.

Did you know?

Combat fatigue was a real problem, with British pilots facing 15-hour shifts and heavy bombardment of their airfields. Pilots had to take to the skies and fight several times a day, and some turned to amphetamine pills to stay alert.

The young aviators played their part perfectly, conveying just the right mixture of boyish exuberance and strength of purpose. The coverage presented them as modern-minded and competent. This was just as well, as the army’s performance to date had created exactly the opposite impression. In Norway and France in the spring of 1940, defeat had followed defeat, and the courage of the troops was betrayed by shoddy equipment and poor leadership.

The army still believed that you had to be a gentlemen to be an officer. Those who had led soldiers into the war all belonged to the same military caste. They went to the same schools, boasted the same moustaches, and married one another’s sisters. But the RAF was different. The technical nature of the service meant that the net had to be cast wider than the military’s traditional recruiting base – for officers and men alike.

Who were the pilots who became ‘the Few’?

In 1936, when the war was still looming, the doors to the world of flying were thrown open. The Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve (RAFVR) was formed to provide a pool of trained pilots to replace those who were expected to fall in the first phase of combat.

The qualifications required were modest, and suddenly the dreams of a legion of lower-middle class lads brought up on the adventures of the fictional fighter ace James ‘Biggles’ Bigglesworth came true, as they set off at weekends to learn to fly at government expense.

“I’d always wanted to fly, from when I was a small boy,” remembered Charlton Haw, who left school at 14. “I never wanted to do anything else, but I never thought there would ever be a chance for me. Until the RAFVR was formed, for a normal schoolboy it was almost impossible.” He joined up in York aged 18, went solo in half the average time and flew Hurricanes with No. 504 Squadron.

The reservists joined their squadrons as sergeant pilots, and as such they would make a vital contribution to victory. More than one-third of the 2,946 men who flew in the Battle of Britain were non-commissioned officers (NCOs). However, they were paid less, lived in poorer accommodation and enjoyed fewer privileges than their officer comrades.

Looking back from the standpoint of today, it seems unfair that men who fought and died together in the air should eat in different ‘messes’ on the ground, but in my conversations with survivors over the years, I rarely heard any complaints.

“We were all very close,” said Maurice Leng, who flew as a sergeant with No. 73 Squadron. “There was no sort of officers versus sergeants ballyhoo. We were all in the same boat, and there was marvellous camaraderie.” By the later stages of the engagement, death and injury had done much to even things up. Almost every NCO pilot ended up with a commission, and the amateurs of the RAFVR soon proved they were the equal of the pre-war professionals.

‘The Few’ were bound together by a shared passion. They were drawn to the RAF because they were fascinated by flying – still a glamorous and mysterious activity – by a willingness to take risks, and an eagerness for fun and adventure.

While researching my various books on the Battle of Britain, I was struck again by how closely the popular image of ‘the Few’ matched the reality. “We were young and had great confidence in our abilities and in our planes, so we all, quite joyfully, joined in the absurd race to death and destruction,” recalled Charles Fenwick, who flew with No. 610 Squadron.

Life between missions

The pilots constructed their own reality in which the possibility of death, although ever present, was rarely mentioned. Off duty, life was lived to the full who knew how much time was left?

At the end of a long day’s fighting, pilots jumped into their jalopies and headed through the green lanes and ripening cornfields to their favourite pub, such as the White Hart at Brasted, Kent, which was frequented by the squadrons based at the nearby RAF base, Biggin Hill.

Station commander Group Captain Dick Grice often led the charge to the watering hole. “Dick Grice had a tannoy speaker mounted on his car you could hear him a mile away,” remembered Pete Brothers, a flight lieutenant with No. 32 Squadron. “‘This is the CO, and I want three scotches and two pints of bitter.’ He’d got a bunch of chaps in the car and was calling up the bar.”

As the battle gathered pace, girls didn’t feature much in the airmen’s lives. There was no time, and many thought it was not fair to form emotional bonds when they knew they might well die tomorrow.

More like boys than warriors

Many of those fighting were barely out of adolescence and sounded more like boys than warriors in their letters home.

“Dear Mum and Dad,” wrote 19-year-old Pilot Officer John Carpenter of No. 222 Squadron on 29 August, just before his unit moved base to Hornchurch and into the thick of the fighting. “I am writing this at five in the morning, we are leaving at eight and should be there by nine. I hope to be shooting Jerries down by ten.”

Three days later, his parents received an update: “Sorry I haven’t written in the last 24 hours, but my time has been rather occupied. So far I have one Messerschmitt 109 and one 110 to my credit, but in getting the 110 I was shot down and had to bale out… Lots of fun here – just what we’ve been waiting for.”

The next letter was from Maidstone Hospital, where he was recovering after being downed again – this time by friendly anti-aircraft fire. “I am not shooting a line when I say that the machine just disappeared from under me in one big BANG… I must have got a hit over the head somewhere, because I could not see coming down…”

What common myths still surround the Battle of Britain?

One enduring belief is that the Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring was incompetent, and his unfortunate decisions placed the Luftwaffe in an unnecessarily difficult position. Christer Bergström dispels this fallacy and five other Battle of Britain myths.

The light-heartedness was to some extent put on. Robin Appleford of No. 66 Squadron described how, as an 18-year-old Spitfire pilot waiting for the order to scramble, he “got that sort of sick feeling all the time. I think most people if they were honest would confirm this”. But it was considered bad form to show it.

The airmen believed that they were simply doing their jobs and were often surprised at the reception they got from the public. On 18 September, Sergeant Ian Hutchinson’s Spitfire was hit over Canterbury, and he bailed out. He was taken to hospital where his shrapnel wounds were bandaged up, and as there was no transport, he had to make his own way back to Hornchurch by rail.

“I had to change trains somewhere,” he recalled. “I was standing on the station with a bandage on my leg … I was carrying a parachute under my arm, and everyone was coming up and shaking my hand, and I wished the ground would have opened up and swallowed me.”

Perhaps those shaking hands with the sergeant weren’t simply thanking him: they wanted to show their solidarity. Everyone was in this battle together, and those on the ground were demonstrating the same courage, selflessness and determination as those in the air.

It was an attitude that made a return to the pre-war order of social injustice and class privilege unthinkable. The memory of those days and the example of the airmen would find political expression when the shooting finally stopped, and the country set about constructing peace from the ruins of the conflict.

Patrick Bishop is a military historian who has worked extensively with veterans. His books include Air Force Blue: The RAF in World War Two (2018) and Fighter Boys (2020)


The Battle of Britain: 75th Anniversary Edition

With more than 40 years of collective experience in book sales, publishing, and bulk book purchasing, we know the needs of event planners, authors, speakers and, of course, readers.

Deep Discounts

We provide discounts on bulk book purchases of nearly all classic and new titles across many different genres. Whether you need to motivate employees, increase productivity, or improve your product, we have the right title for you.

Contact Us

Looking for an unlisted title? Need help placing an order? Whatever your question, we can help.


Background

The last half of the 17th century was a turbulent time for England. Following the English Civil War’s bloody end, the country was ruled by the Puritan Oliver Cromwell and, after his death, his son Richard. The English Protectorate only ended after Richard’s resignation, after which Parliament alone ruled until the house of Stuart’s restoration in 1660. Under King Charles II, the crown began to align itself with France, then an ambitious continental power and the strongest of the Catholic kingdoms. Charles was a shrewd politician, and some years before his death in 1685, he signed the Treaty of Dover. In exchange for financial assistance from France, Charles would privately convert to Catholicism and devote a number of English warships to King Louis XIV’s war effort against the Protestant Dutch Republic.

Despite Charles’s foreign political savvy, his domestic policy of religious tolerance did not sit well with many Irish Catholics, who had supported the exiled Stuarts at great personal risk. Under Cromwell’s rule, much of their property had been stripped from them. English Protestants were also incentivized to settle in Ireland, further reducing the power of Irish Catholics. Having suffered so heavily for the Stuarts, Charles’s Catholic subjects hoped for more explicitly beneficial treatment. Charles’s support of his fellow believers was tacit, in contrast to that of his openly Catholic brother, James. When James II acceded to the throne in 1685, he enacted a number of military reforms in Ireland aimed at eliminating local Protestant influence. The earl of Tyrconnell was tasked with disarming Protestant militias and levying an Irish army loyal not to Anglican-controlled Parliament but only to the crown.

On the other side of the North Sea, tensions escalated between France and the Dutch Republic. William III of Orange, an elected stadtholder (chief magistrate) of five major Dutch provinces, had successfully defended the Netherlands against a French invasion from 1672 to 1678. A second invasion in 1680 cemented William’s opposition to an expansionist France. Setting aside religious differences, he joined the League of Augsburg alongside a number of Catholic powers aimed at putting a decisive end to French land grabs.

Shortly before the end of the first French invasion, William had wed his cousin Mary, who was also King Charles II’s niece. In the absence of any eligible male heirs, Mary was second to an aging James in the line of succession, meaning that upon James’s death, she and William could turn English firepower on France. William understood the importance of the Royal Navy in any military designs against France, and such designs would end in disaster as long as Charles remained a French ally with Catholic sympathies. Unfortunately for William, the line of succession changed in June 1688, when King James II’s wife bore a son.

Amid doubts regarding the child’s legitimacy, William rallied thousands of Dutchmen to his banner and prepared to cross the North Sea. With favourable weather conditions that stayed the English fleet, he landed that November at Brixham, located in Devonshire on Tor Bay. James’s government and military splintered as men flocked to William’s standard. William entered London in mid-December. By Christmas Eve, James had quietly quit his country for France, effectively ceding the throne to William.

In April 1689, Parliament crowned William and Mary joint sovereigns of Britain. Between William III’s landing and coronation, however, Ireland had grown dangerously recalcitrant. Tyrconnell was able to muster his formidable army of Irish Catholics, known as Jacobites for their loyalty to the exiled James II. Tyrconnell consolidated Jacobite dominance in Ireland over a matter of months, with only a few pockets of Protestant resistance. Just weeks before William’s coronation, James received enough French support to set in motion his plan to retake the throne. On March 12 he landed in the southern Irish town of Kinsale with nearly all the northern country under his control. Two major Protestant strongholds, Derry (now Londonderry) and Enniskillen, became the sites of major conflict over the next few months.

James lay siege to Derry on April 18. The city held out for three months until a Williamite relief force arrived, and by the end of July the Jacobites had retreated. Also in July, Protestants rebuffed a Jacobite army at Enniskillen and forced them to withdraw. Following Enniskillen, William dispatched a landing force of some 20,000 men from England under the duke of Schomberg, a seasoned military commander from the Holy Roman Empire. Schomberg’s army was primarily Dutch, with some fresh English recruits and a few thousand Danes. At the head of this army, Schomberg landed in Northern Ireland at Bangor on August 13. He seized the town of Carrickfergus and advanced south toward Dublin. James’s armies, which by now had reached Drogheda en route to the Irish capital, wheeled around to block Schomberg’s movements. In September the two forces took up camp on opposite sides of Dundalk, a town in the south of Ulster province. They remained there through the winter.

During this lull in fighting, James’s envoys in France were able to secure reinforcements from the mainland. Some 6,000 French musketeers landed in southern Ireland in March 1690. In London, William convinced Parliament to grant him more funds for the duration of the war. He also announced his intention to personally bring an end to the Jacobite rising. At the head of 15,000 reinforcements, William landed at Carrickfergus on June 14, 1690.

James deduced that protecting Dublin was of paramount importance. It was both the Irish seat of power and unacceptably unfortified. With Dublin’s poor position as a defense point itself, his advisers were split regarding the best location to halt William’s advance. Some thought he should create a bottleneck at Moyry Pass, while others were wary of being flanked and slaughtered. James settled on a defensive position on the southern banks of the Boyne River, 25 miles (40 kilometres) north of Dublin and the ancient city’s largest natural defense. He set up camp on June 29. William established his headquarters across the river shortly thereafter.


Your guide to the Battle of Britain: how the RAF turned back the Luftwaffe

By the end of June 1940, the forces of Nazi Germany and its allies dominated Western Europe. In July, Adolf Hitler turned his attention to Britain which, despite the seeminly hopeless military situation it was in, had refused to surrender. We bring you the everything you need to know about what followed – the Battle of Britain

This competition is now closed

Published: September 15, 2020 at 9:20 am

Described by prime minister Winston Churchill as the RAF’s finest hour, the Battle of Britain (10 July – 31 October 1940) was the first major military campaign in history to be fought entirely in the air. It was one of Britain’s most important victories of the Second World War and is credited with preventing Germany from invading Britain. Historian Julian Humphrys takes us through some of the biggest questions and facts surrounding this pivotal aerial campaign…

When and why was the Battle of Britain fought?

Adolf Hitler aimed to force Britain to submit by bombing, naval blockade or, if necessary, invasion. But to achieve this, he needed air supremacy. So, in the summer and autumn of 1940, a few thousand airmen waged a dogged battle in the skies over Britain. Next to the later conflicts of World War II, it was a tiny affair. But the stakes were huge – resting on the result was the survival of Britain and the outcome of the entire war.

What happened during the Battle of Britain? Here are 5 key dates…

10 July 1940: Official start of the battle of Britain

The battle begins with the Kanalkampf, or Channel Battles phase, when the Germans launched sustained attacks against British shipping to prevent much-needed supplies from reaching the beleaguered British Isles.

13 August 1940: Eagle Day

With the outcome of the Kanalkampf phase of the battle inconclusive, Luftwaffe commander-in-cheif Hermann Göring makes plans for an all-out assault against Fighter Command on the British mainland.

18 August 1940: The Hardest Day

Both sides suffer their greatest number of losses so far: 69 German aircraft versus Fighter Command’s 29.

7 September 1940: The Blitz begins

Dismayed by the failure to destroy Fighter Command and incensed by a British bombing raid on Berlin, Göring turns his attention to London.

15 September 1940: Battle of Britain Day

Air Vice-Marshal Keith Park famously orders all his aircraft into the air to defend the capital, abandoning his own policy of deliberate, smaller attacks by individual squadrons.

Read more details about each date in Kate Moore’s 5 key dates in the Battle of Britain

What led to the Battle of Britain?

Within a few hours of each other, on 3 September 1939, Britain and France declared war against Nazi Germany following its invasion of Poland. With the exception of a brief French incursion into Germany, a few notable naval actions and some small-scale bombing raids, the opening months of the conflict were remarkably quiet. As such, the period gained the nickname ‘the Phoney War’. In the spring of 1940, all that changed.

In April, the Germans began their conquest of Norway and then, on 10 May, they invaded France and Belgium. Bypassing the heavily fortified Maginot Line, which ran along the Franco-German border, and employing fast-moving Blitzkrieg (‘lightning war’) tactics they swept through the Ardennes before turning for the coast, cutting off hundreds of thousands of French and British soldiers at Dunkirk. Operation Dynamo, the Allied evacuation from those beaches, brought over 300,000 of them back to England. But France had been knocked out of the war, and the British had been forced to leave most of their equipment behind.

Hitler expected the British to come to terms but Winston Churchill – the new British Prime Minister – was having none of it. Scorning surrender, he demonstrated to the world (and to the US in particular) Britain’s ruthless determination to fight on by attacking the fleet of its former ally, France, to prevent it from falling into German hands.

Faced with what he saw as stubborn intransigence on the part of Britain, Hitler planned to force its surrender by bombing, naval blockade or, as a last resort, invasion. But to do this he needed to gain mastery of the skies over Britain, which meant knocking out the Royal Air Force (RAF).

Only then could a large-enough bombing campaign be mounted to force the British to the negotiating table, or an invasion force have any chance of crossing the English Channel in the face of the powerful Royal Navy.

What did the Battle of Britain mean for Hitler’s plans?

In July 1940, Hitler ordered plans to be put in place for a seaborne invasion of Britain, which was given the code name Seelöwe or ‘Sealion’. The invasion plan was seen very much as a last resort. Hitler hoped that through blockade, bombing and the threat of an invasion, he could break the British will to fight.

Had Operation Sealion actually gone ahead, it would have been an incredibly risky undertaking. For a start, a long spell of calm weather was needed for the fragile invasion barges to cross the Channel – anything more than a mild swell and they risked being swamped. And lurking in the wings was the fearsome Royal Navy.

There was a real danger that it might attack the invasion fleet as it crossed the Channel, or cut off the German ground forces once they’d landed. Only victory in the air would have given the invasion any prospect of success, but it seems highly likely that, though it may well have suffered heavy losses from bombing, mines and U-boats, the Royal Navy would have been able to intervene decisively had the invasion been attempted.

Could Operation Sealion ever have succeeded?

The RAF’s Battle of Britain heroics are credited with saving the nation. But, argues Nick Hewitt, it was the Royal Navy’s savaging of the German fleet in the battle of Norway in the spring of 1940 that scuttled Hitler’s grand invasion plans.

“In truth, there’s little chance that Germany could have invaded England, even if the RAF had been defeated in the Battle of Britain,” he says. “That’s because, some weeks earlier, Britain had already, in effect, been saved.”

How strong were the RAF and Luftwaffe in July 1940?

The German Air Force, or Luftwaffe, consisted of three Luftflotten (‘Air fleets’), deployed in an arc round Britain from Normandy to Scandinavia. During the Battle of Britain they had about 2,800 aircraft, two-thirds of which were bombers. The Luftwaffe had already defeated the air forces of Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and the RAF contingent prior to Dunkirk. Its crews were experienced and confident and its commander predicted it would only take a few days to knock out the RAF.

In 1936, the RAF had been organised into four separate Commands: Training, Coastal, Bomber and Fighter. Fighter Command was organised geographically into four ‘Groups’. Air Vice-Marshal Park’s 11 Group, in the South East, would bear the brunt of the fighting. It had about 650 aircraft and 1,300 pilots at its disposal at the start of the Battle.

Fighter Command had suffered heavy losses during the Battle of France and its commander Hugh Dowding controversially refused Churchill’s request for more squadrons to be sent there, arguing that every plane was needed for the forthcoming fights over Britain.

Listen: historian James Holland describes how the Luftwaffe and RAF fought to control the skies over Britain in 1940

Who were the key players?

Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding

The commander-in-chief of Fighter Command, Dowding modernised Britain’s aerial defences, encouraged the design of modern fighter planes and supported the development of radar.

Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring

A WWI flying ace who took over the fighter wing once led by the Red Baron, Göring was Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe during the Battle. In 1946, he committed suicide before he was due to be executed for war crimes.

Air Vice-Marshal Keith Park

A flying ace in WWI, New Zealand-born Park commanded the Number 11 Fighter Group – responsible for the defence of London and the Southeast, and bore the brunt of the fighting.

Generalfeldmarschall Hugo Sperrle

Sperrle was commander of Luftflotte III, which was heavily engaged during the Battle. He had previously commanded the German Condor Legion, which flew on the side of the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War.

What was the Luftwaffe’s plan?

The aims of the two sides were relatively straightforward. The Germans planned to bomb key British military, industrial and, later, civilian targets, thus devastating Britain’s ability and willingness to fight. They also reasoned that, as the RAF would have to respond to these attacks, its fighter force would be worn down until the numerically superior Luftwaffe enjoyed supremacy in the skies over Britain. Then, an invasion might just be possible.

In order to get at the bombers, the RAF first had to fight its way through a protective screen of enemy fighters. And here, the Germans enjoyed a tactical advantage.

The RAF had always liked close formation flying. Its three-plane V formations looked impressive, but were not very agile in battle. The Germans, on the other hand, had learnt from their experiences in the Spanish Civil War. They replaced the V with a pair of planes – one would lead while the other acted as its wingman, watching its back. Two pairs often worked together and, until the British adjusted their own tactics, these looser formations gave the Germans an edge in close combat.

However, the Germans consistently underestimated how many planes the RAF had, and how quickly it could replace those it had lost. And, like the RAF, they usually overestimated how many planes they’d shot down. As a result, they never really had a clear picture of how the battle was going.

In August, they began attacking RAF airfields, which did, in fact, put Fighter Command under severe strain. But when, in early September, they switched their sights to British cities, they did so at just the wrong time. They believed Fighter Command was on its last legs. They were wrong. When large numbers of RAF fighters inflicted heavy losses on the raids of 15 September, it was a devastating blow to Luftwaffe morale.

What common myths still surround the Battle of Britain?

One enduring belief is that the Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring was incompetent, and his unfortunate decisions placed the Luftwaffe in an unnecessarily difficult position. Christer Bergström dispels this fallacy and five other Battle of Britain myths.

Who were ‘the Few‘?

RAF fighter pilots were a cosmopolitan bunch, very different to the public school ‘Tally Ho’ chaps they’re popularly seen as.

In fact, of the almost 3,000 pilots that flew during the Battle of Britain, fewer than 200 were public-school educated. The rest came from a wide variety of backgrounds – bank clerks, shop assistants and factory workers all served as fighter pilots.

What they did have in common was their youth. While a few ‘old sweats’ were over 30, the average age of an RAF fighter pilot was just 20, and many were as young as 18. At the time, you had to be 21 to vote so many of these young men were risking their lives in defence of a democracy they were not yet old enough to participate in.

Not all of the Battle of Britain pilots were British

About 20 per cent of Fighter Command’s aircrew came from overseas: New Zealanders, Canadians, Australians and South Africans took part in the Battle of Britain, and they were joined by volunteers from a variety of nations including neutral countries like Ireland and the US.

Vital contributions were also made by pilots from Nazi-occupied countries – Poles, Czechoslovakians, Belgians, Frenchmen and Austrians all flew in the Battle. Many of them were experienced fighters, often motivated by an intense hatred of the country that was oppressing their own. Although it was only operational for six weeks, the Polish No 303 Squadron shot down more German planes than any other unit.

Is the Battle of Britain overrated?

Historian Sean Lang argues that this clash of aerial supremacy is among the nine most overrated battles in history – alongside Bannockburn, Bosworth and the defeat of the Spanish Armada.

RAF pilots generally received less training than their German counterparts

At this time, all German aircrew had to undergo at least six months of basic training British pilots rarely got more than a month. German aviators received up to 80 hours’ training at specialist bomber or fighter schools, and took part in simulation sorties and mock battles before seeing combat. RAF pilots were lucky if they got more than about 20 hours of actual flying before they were posted to an operational unit, such was Britain’s shortage of manpower.

Pilots on both sides rapidly learned that there was a world of difference between the flying they’d learned in training and flying in combat. You might have been the most elegant flier in the world but it counted for little if you couldn’t shoot straight.

Fighter planes normally had only enough ammunition for about ten seconds of sustained firing, and so often the best tactic was to get your plane as close as possible to an enemy – ideally without him seeing you – fire off a short burst of one or two seconds and then quickly move on.

Such deadly encounters often lasted moments and in these circumstances strong nerves, quick reactions and good eyesight were as important as technical flying ability.

The ‘many’ on the ground were as important as the ‘few’ in the air

“The Few, the pilots in their fighter aircraft, were one cog that made up the first fully co-ordinated air defence system in the world,” writes James Holland.

“This saw modern radar, an Observer Corps, radio and a highly efficient means of collating, filtering and disseminating this information being combined with a highly developed ground control to ensure that Luftwaffe raids such as those on 14 August were intercepted and harried repeatedly.”

Women played vital roles in the Battle of Britain

Many worked in factories building the aircraft that actually did the fighting while one out of every eight of the pilots in the Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA), which delivered planes to stations across the country, were female. One of these was the accomplished Amy Johnson, who died in 1941 when the aircraft she was flying crashed into the Thames estuary.

Members of the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) worked alongside the RAF as drivers, clerks, telephonists, cooks and orderlies. Some served at radar stations while others famously worked as plotters in the various Fighter Command operations rooms mapping friendly and enemy aircraft positions and helping to direct fighter planes. Many of the places they worked at were primary targets for German attacks. More than 750 WAAFs lost their lives during the war.

Meanwhile, women in the Army’s Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) worked as radar operators, and joined the crews of anti-aircraft guns and searchlight units. More than 250,000 women served in the ATS during World War II, including the future Queen Elizabeth II, who joined up while a princess at the age of 19, training as a driver and mechanic.

The Spitfire was not the only RAF fighter

For many, the sleek and slender Supermarine Spitfire is the enduring symbol of the Battle of Britain. Indeed, at the time, just a glimpse of its silhouette in the sky gave hope to those below, who knew that Fighter Command were on the scene, tackling the enemy over Britain.

But the Spitfire was not the most significant plane in the RAF: Britain’s number one fighter was the Hawker Hurricane. Solid, reliable and tough, it was the first monoplane fighter to enter service with the RAF, which it did in 1937. During the Battle of Britain, Hurricanes shot down more enemy planes than all the other types of Allied aircraft combined.

Was the Battle of Britain the country’s finest hour?

“One of them, certainly,” writes James Holland, “as it consigned Hitler to a long attritional war on multiple fronts – a conflict his forces were not designed to fight, and which materially meant they would always be struggling.”

The Battle of Britain overlaps with the Blitz

The Blitz is the name given to the sustained bombing of British cities that began with the first massed air raid on London on 7 September 1940. It continued in one form or other for eight months, only petering out in May 1941 when the Germans began to prepare their invasion of Russia.

London came under sustained attack – it was bombed for 57 consecutive nights and by the end of October more than 250,000 Londoners were homeless.

This content first appeared in the May 2015 issue of BBC History Revealed, and curated with content from BBC History Magazine and HistoryExtra published between 2010 and 2015


RELATED ARTICLES

The conflict mainly played out in shield-wall clashes where a long line of ironbound willow shields were carried by warriors also wielding swords, spears and axes, The Telegraph reports.

The attackers would throw spears and shoot arrows at the enemy's shield-wall hoping to break the defence before coming into close contact.

THE BATTLE OF BRUNANBURH

The Battle of Brunanburh, which pitted a West Saxon army against a combined hoard of Vikings, Scots and Irish in 937, was one of the most decisive events in British medieval history.

In 927, King Aethelstan invaded Northumbria, occupied York and expelled King of Ireland Anlaf Guthfrithson's kinsmen, the rulers of York and Dublin.

Ten years later, in the summer of 937, Anlaf and Constantine launched their invasion with 'the biggest Viking fleet ever seen in British waters'.

At some point later in the year Aethelstan advanced out of Mercia and attacked the main allied army around Brunanburh.

In a battle described as 'immense, lamentable and horrible', King Aethelstan defeated a Viking fleet led by the Anlaf and Constantine, the King of Alba.

Anlaf escaped by sea and arrived back in Dublin the following spring.

Had King Athelstan - grandson of Alfred the Great - been defeated it would have been the end of Anglo-Saxon England.

But upon victory, Britain was created for the first time and Athelstan became the de facto King of all Britain, the first in history.

Shields clashed with shields and fighters hacked at each other in the brutal battle as they tried to open a gap in the first line of defence before ranks behind would fill in.

If the shield-wall broke the savage fighting became even bloodier with warriors slain as they tried to flee.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a collection of annals in Old English, said of the battle: 'Never greater slaughter/Was there on this island, never as many/Folk felled before this/By the swords' edges.'

After researching medieval manuscripts, uncovering weapons and carrying out land surveys, experts believe the true battlefield was in Wirral.

It has been rumoured to have taken place in County Durham, Yorkshire and Cheshire.

In 927, King Aethelstan invaded Northumbria, occupied York and expelled King of Ireland Anlaf Guthfrithson's kinsmen, the rulers of York and Dublin.

Ten years later, in the summer of 937, Anlaf and Constantine launched their invasion with 'the biggest Viking fleet ever seen in British waters'.

At some point later in the year Aethelstan advanced out of Mercia and attacked the main allied army around Brunanburh.

In a battle described as 'immense, lamentable and horrible', King Aethelstan defeated a Viking fleet led by the Anlaf and Constantine, the King of Alba.

Anlaf escaped by sea and arrived back in Dublin the following spring.

Had King Athelstan - grandson of Alfred the Great - been defeated it would have been the end of Anglo-Saxon England.

But upon victory, Aethelstan prevented the dissolution of his kingdom in what historian Alfred Smyth described as 'the greatest single battle in Anglo-Saxon history before Hastings'.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle described at the time how Athelstan's forces chased after the Scots and Vikings after they had been vanquished, and slaughtered them mercilessly.

WHY PROFESSOR MICHAEL WOOD IS CONVINCED THE BATTLE TOOK PLACE IN SOUTH YORKSHIRE

TV historian Professor Michael Wood

Most people believe the Battle of Brunanburh took place in Bromborough on the Wirral, Merseyside.

But TV historian Professor Michael Wood is convinced it actually unfolded 100 miles away in South Yorkshire, near the quaint village of Burghwallis.

He gives six main reasons as evidence for the battle's location in South Yorkshire:

1 - He says a battle site on the main route from York down into England's Danish heartland in Mercia is a far more likely location for the battle.

The region south of York was the centre of conflict between the Northumbrians and the West Saxon kings during the second quarter of the 10th century.

2 - The name Bromborough comes from an Old English place name Brunanburh or 'Bruna's fort' which is the same as the battle.

But Professor Wood argues the case for Bromborough being the location of the battle 'rests on the name alone'.

He says Bromborough is not mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book and doesn't appear until the 12th century.

3 - There are also doubts about whether Brunanburh should be spelt with a single or double 'n', as it was by several 10th and 11th century chroniclers.

Altering the spelling to a double 'n' and Brunnanburh changes the Old English meaning from 'Bruna's fort' to 'the fort at the spring', which could refer to Robin Hood's Well.

4 - Professor Wood highlights a poem in 1122 in which John of Worcester reported Anlaf's fleet landed in the Humber, the opposite side of the country to the Wirral.

5 - And a lost 10th century poem quoted by William of Malmesbury says the Northumbrians submitted to the invaders at or near York, implying the invaders were in Yorkshire in the prelude to the battle.

6 - An early Northumbrian source, the Historia Regum, gives an alternative name for the battle site - Wendun.

Professor Wood said this could be interpreted as 'the dun by the Went' or 'Went Hill' in south Yorkshire, near to Robin Hood's Well.


Kate Moore Barry, the “Heroine of the Battle of Cowpens”, Rides Through the Back Trails of South Carolina to Warn of Approaching British Troops

Catherine &ldquoKate&rdquo Moore Barry, the &ldquoHeroine of the Battle of Cowpens,&rdquo rode through the back trails of South Carolina to warn of approaching British troops and round up militia, including her husband, to join General Daniel Morgan for the Battle of Cowpens, Jan. 17, 1781.

Catherine Moore Barry served her country with bravery and intelligence as a spy and messenger, and was instrumental in the pivotal Battle of Cowpens. This battle was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British forces and ultimately lead to the Battle of Yorktown when General Washington accepted the surrender of General Cornwallis. She became one of the first American Heroines and was decorated with several medals after the War for Independence by South Carolina.

Catherine Moore was born on October 22, 1752, to Charles and Mary Moore. Catherine who was known as &ldquoKate&rdquo was the eldest of ten children. She lived with her family in Piedmont, South Carolina until she married Andrew Barry at age 15. She moved with her husband to Walnut Grove Plantation in Roebuck, South Carolina. She had three children with her husband.

Kate was instrumental in warning the militia of the invading British forces before the Battle of Cowpens in 1781 using her extensive knowledge of the area to help the Patriots. According to legend, she tied her toddler to the bedpost while she rode out to warn neighbors that the British Army was advancing. She knew the Indian trails well and was able to notify the colonial militia forces of the approaching army. The British, under command of General Cornwallis were trying to stomp out Patriot resistance in the southern colonies. General Morgan was the commander of the American forces and he realized that he was out-manned. Morgan turned to Kate for help and she single-handedly rounded up an impressive amount of local Patriots to join Morgan&rsquos cause. With her help, General Morgan laid a trap for General Corwallis and his men. After the trap proved as a success, Cornwallis retreated right into the hands of George Washington in Yorktown, Virginia.

Her husband Andrew became a general in the war, and Kate often assisted him in battle. Kate became a spy and a messenger in the War for Independence. She was a great asset to the Patriots, because she had a strong knowledge of the lands in South Carolina and was courageous in her service.

Kate died on September 23, 1823. She was buried in the family cemetery beside her husband, who was one of the first elders of the Nazareth Presbyterian Church.


The Battle of Britain - Kate Moore

Spread the cost of your purchase into 3 interest-free instalments. The first payment is made at point of purchase, with remaining instalments scheduled automatically every 30 days. No interest or fees. Select the Klarna option and enter your debit or credit information.

A new way to pay that's an alternative to a credit card.

3 instalments gives you the flexibility to shop without interest or hidden fees.

Not making payment on time could affect your ability to use Klarna in the future.

Debt collection agencies are used as a last resort.

Am I eligible for Pay later in 3?

To check your eligibility, Klarna wil perform a soft search with a credit reference agency. this will not affect your credit score. You must be 18+ and a UK resident to be eligible for this credit offer. Whilst this option is widely promoted, Pay later in 3 is subject to your financial circumstances.

What do I need to provide when I make a purchase?

If you want to make a purchase with Klarna using Pay later in 3, you'll need to provide your mobile phone number, email address, current billing address and a debit or credit card. The mobile number is required in case we need to reach you. All communications will be sent to your email address. It's very important that you give us the correct details, as otherwise you will not receive your payment schedule and any updated order information.

Published in association with the Imperial War Museum in London to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Britain, this book brings one of the most important battles of World War II to life. Lavishly illustrated with photographs, contemporary art and propaganda posters, and accompanied by numerous first-hand accounts, The Battle of Britain captures the reality and the romance of a defining chapter in British history. Moreover, it offers a detailed analysis of the events immediately preceding the battle, the key strategic decisions by opposing commanders that altered the course of the battle, as well as the development of criticial weaponry and defenses that dramatically changed the way aerial combat was fought.

Moore's book pays tribute to visionaries such as R. J. Mitchell and Air Chief Marshall Lord Dowding, who ensured that, rather than simply a victory snatched from the jaws of defeat, this was a battle for which Britain's Fighter Command was uniquely prepared. Such preparation nearly guaranteed that although the British were vastly outnumbered, they could confidently counter the German fighter planes and bombers that darkened the skies throughout the summer of 1940. It was this small band of men and women, covered in detail in this title, that were the first to successfully oppose the seemingly unstoppable tide of the Nazi war machine, irrevocably altering the course of the rest of the war.

We are Rated Excellent on TrustpilotHere's what you say about us.
Here's what you say about The Battle of Britain - Kate Moore.
We are Rated Excellent on TrustpilotHere's what you say about us.

Kate Moore studied Modern History at the University of Cape Town and completed a Masters in the same subject at Oxford University, where her final thesis was on the Battle of Britain. She has an interest in all periods of history but her first love will always be the key events of 1940. Based in the Osprey editorial office, she works on a variety of titles, but this is the first book she has written for Osprey.

"Appropriately released in time for the 70th anniversary of the onslaught, the book provides not only the history of the BoB, but also an analysis of events from both sides of the conflict. In here you'll find the aircraft, the airmen, the commanders, and other personalities with the RAF and the Luftwaffe. It is a superbly written book that brings everything to life. It is a book that I can easily recommend to you as one that you'll be going to over and over again." - Scott Van Aken, Modeling Madness

"Offer[s] a lavish display packed with modern art, photos, propaganda posters, and first-hand accounts. Any collection strong in British military history must have this!" -
The Midwest Book Review

"Photos, wartime posters and drawings, and even a pilot's handwritten diary - mostly culled from the Imperial War Museum's vast archives - makes this one of the most attractive illustrated treatments to appear. The brief, authoritative text is a match for the graphics." - Aviation History (November 2010)

"Moore does a remarkable job of telling the story of not just the Battle itself -- understandably concentrating on the most intense days -- but also the events leading up to it . Not only that, but she writes with style and some verve." -Brett Holman, www.airminded.com

". this solid offering provides background and perspective (and pictures) from both sides of the battle, all laced with apposite first-person memories." -Gene Santoro, World War II Magazine (May/June 2011)


The Battle of Britain, Kate Moore - History

The British are coming – Kate Moore Barry – Heroine of the Battle of Cowpens

Kate Moore Barry (born Margaret Catharine Moore) was born near Spartanburg, South Carolina in 1752. She served as a scout for the patriot militia during the American Revolutionary War. Her home, Walnut Grove Plantation, still exists today as a tourist attraction in Roebuck, South Carolina, just outside Spartanburg.

Barry is best known for her bravery in warning that British troops were coming thus securing an important battle in America’s fight for independence, now known as the Battle of Cowpens. The story goes that when she heard the news, she tied her newborn infant to her bedpost, ran to her horse and rode out using a shortcut through the woods to safely warn neighbors the British were coming. Winning this battle ultimately led to removing the British leader Cornwallis out of South Carolina.


Watch the video: The Battle of Britain and the Myth of The Few Historigraph 3