Lawrence Cook

Lawrence Cook

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Lawrence Cook was born in Preston on 28th March 1885. A centre-forward he played football for Bacup and Chester before joining Stockport County in 1912.

On 2nd April, 1915, Manchester United beat Liverpool 2-0. Afterwards, bookmakers claimed that they had taken a great deal of money on the 7-1 odds offered on a 2-0 United victory. They suspected that the game had been fixed and pointed out that late in the game, Jackie Sheldon, had missed a penalty. The bookmakers decided not to pay out on the result and offered a £50 reward for information that would unmask the conspirators.

The Sporting Chronicle newspaper took up the story and claimed that they discovered evidence that players on both sides had got together to concoct a 2-0 scoreline. The newspaper also argued that some of the players had large bets on the result.

The Football League announced it would carry out its own investigation into the case. It published its report in December 1915. It concluded that "a considerable amount of money changed hands by betting on the match and... some of the players profited thereby."

Cook was found guilty of this offence and was banned for playing professional football for life. Three players in the Manchester United squad were banned for life: Enoch West, Sandy Turnbull and Arthur Whalley. Only West actually played in the game. The same sentence was imposed on four Liverpool players: Jackie Sheldon, Tom Fairfoul, Tommy Miller and Bob Pursell.

Lawrence Cook, who had scored four goals in 10 games for Stockport, died in 1933.

J. Lawrence Cook

J. Lawrence Cook is a historic name in ragtime and other piano styles from the early 20th century. His name shows up as an arranger and sometimes composer on stacks of sheet music from this period, he…
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Artist Biography by Eugene Chadbourne

J. Lawrence Cook is a historic name in ragtime and other piano styles from the early 20th century. His name shows up as an arranger and sometimes composer on stacks of sheet music from this period, he wrote several of the best analytical studies of ragtime, and, most importantly, he turned out a series of piano rolls that, according to some documentation, number in the tens of thousands. An important aspect of Cook's job was to figure out the exact recipe of pianists such as Fats Waller or Jelly Roll Morton, players whose virtuoso extemporization left many other arrangers scratching their heads, if not banging them against the piano bench. Existing transcriptions of performances by Morton and Waller are quite often done by Cook, but the latter man also had a distinctly personal side to his work, evidenced by an entry in the unfinished A Survey of Jazz Transitions by Joe Davis which demonstrates J. Lawrence Cook's original interpretation of the tune "Christopher Columbus" before going on to demonstrate how Waller might have played it.

Cook was an orphan before he was four years old luckily, he was raised by relatives who introduced him to music early on. He attended Haines Normal and Industrial Institute, an Augusta, GA, boarding school founded by noted African-American educator Lucy Craft Laney. By 1919, Cook had finished his college prepatory courses as well as a good deal of piano study, and was developing an interest in the mechanized player-piano technology, including instruments such as the Nickelodeon. In his early twenties he saved enough funds to buy a machine known as a perforator, which did just what it sounded like it would do -- make little holes in a roll of paper in conjunction with the musical content of a piano solo. Ragtime master Eubie Blake encouraged Cook to head to New York City, the heart of the piano-roll physical empire. It was good advice Cook went right to work for piano-roll companies such as Aeolian and U.S. Music Roll. The Q.R.S Music Roll Co. took him on in the spring of 1923 as part of a race-recording catalog that also included James P. Johnson, Waller, and Clarence "Jelly" Johnson. During this period, Cook underwent an exhaustive study of different kinds of popular music, since he was basically required to turn anything he was handed into a groovy piano roll.

He arranged a huge number of such rolls in the '20s, often designed to feature new types of equipment such as the Melville Clark recording piano. Both piano-roll and sheet-music sales faltered badly during the Depression, though. In the '30s, Cook was still creating piano rolls, but had to also work for the post office to make ends meet. From the heyday of piano-roll popularity, Cook continued his devotion to this art form from the basement of his home in the Bronx, producing small quantities of piano rolls designed for collectors. Often these were released under pseudonyms including Eubie Jones, Cal Welch, Tom Blake, Walter Redding, "Pep" Doyle, and Sid Laney. While some of these names are obviously sound-alike cops of famous ragtime players, others had more obscure origins. Sid Laney, for instance, combined a reference to the company's factory in Sydney, Australia, with a tribute to Cook's school headmaster, Laney.

Cook did a great deal of interesting work in the '40s and '50s, continuing to transcribe popular keyboard tinklers of the time such as Erroll Garner, Frankie Carle, Art Tatum, and Bob Zurke, as well as the ongoing obsession with material created by Waller. Cook was a master at making the machine sound like a normal piano played by a human, often by carefully avoiding certain parts of the machine's tonal palette. His sense of orchestration and harmony became increasingly complicated as the years went on, in a kind of reverse synchronicity to music styles, which seemed like they were becoming simpler and more monochromatic. The hi-fi era provided him some unique recording opportunities, as the player piano became the subject of quickie vinyl exploitation -- just like the bongos, the banjo, and anything else that could be hauled out of the back of a music store. Piano Rock 'n' Roll was released by the Mercury label in 1959, matching piano rolls created by Cook with accompaniment from session hotshots such as Milt Hinton, Tony Mottola, George Duvivier, and Osie Johnson.


Physicians speculated that it was owing to a salt diet, to a lack of oxygen in the body, to fat skimmed from the ships' boiling pans, to bad air, to thickening of the blood, to sugar, to melancholy but no one knew for certain. People were aware that once victims were on shore they could be recovered by eating scurvy grass, wild celery, wood sorrel, nasturtiums, brooklime, Kerguelen cabbage (Pringlea antiscorbutica), cabbage trees and other esculent plants growing on the shores of distant islands. Fruit and palm wine were also esteemed to be fine remedies, and since 1753, when James Lind published A Treatise of the Scurvy, there was experimental proof that citrus had a rapid beneficial effect.

Captain Cook's voyage around New Zealand and the east coast of Australia © Once on shore it was a superstition among sailors that the smell and the touch of the earth gave the surest cure. One of Anson's crew had his shipmates cut out a turf and put his mouth into the hole. Vitus Bering, the Danish navigator, died of scurvy half buried in the ground. No one had a remedy for scurvy at sea - however the best on offer was a battery of prophylactic measures, including portable soup (a preparation of dried vegetables), malt, sauerkraut, concentrated fruit juice (rob), vinegar, mustard, molasses and beans. These were aimed at repelling any sign of scurvy from the outset, since it was impossible to control it, once it had gained a footing, other than by going ashore.

. it was impossible to control scurvy, once it had gained a footing, other than by going ashore .

All the British voyages of the Pacific undertaken in the 1760s - by Byron, Wallis, Carteret and Cook - were used to test these prophylactics. Wallis carried malt, sauerkraut, 'vinegar and mustard without limitation', 30 hundredweight of portable soup, and 180 Magellan jackets to protect the men against cold and damp. Under the direction of the 'Sick and Hurt and Victualling Boards of the Admiralty', Cook was supplied likewise with 40 bushels of malt, 1000lb of portable soup, vinegar, mustard, wheat, together with 'proper Quantities of sauer Kraut and Rob'. Like Wallis, Cook paid strict attention to airing and drying the lower decks, and keeping his men warm and well slept.

10 Things You May Not Know About Captain James Cook

1. Cook joined the Royal Navy relatively late in life.
Cook worked on a Yorkshire farm in his youth before winning an apprenticeship with a merchant sailing company at age 17. He cut his teeth as a mariner on shipping voyages in the choppy waters of North and Baltic Seas, and spent the next decade rising through the ranks and mastering the art of navigation. He was being groomed to become a captain, but in 1755, he shocked his superiors by quitting his merchant sailing career and enlisting in the British Royal Navy as a common seaman. Cook was 26�r older than most new recruits—yet it didn’t take long for the Navy to recognize his talent. He was promoted to ship’s master in only two years, and later became one of the first men in British naval history to rise through the enlisted ranks and take command of his own vessel.

2. He was an expert mapmaker.
Cook first rose to prominence as a cartographer during the Seven Years’ War, when his detailed charts of the Saint Lawrence River helped the British pull off a surprise attack against French-held Quebec. In the early 1760s, he was given a ship and tasked with charting the island of Newfoundland off the coast of Canada. The map he produced was so accurate that it was still in use in the 20th century. Cook’s skill at charting the seas would later become a crucial tool in his explorer’s arsenal. He won command of his first round-the-world voyage in part because he could be trusted to navigate in uncharted territory and bring home precise maps of the lands he discovered.

Cook landing at Botany Bay.

3. Cook’s first voyage included a secret mission from the British government.
Cook’s career as an explorer began in August 1768, when he left England on HM Bark Endeavour with nearly 100 crewmen in tow. Their journey was ostensibly a scientific expedition—they were charged with sailing to Tahiti to observe the transit of Venus across the face of the sun𠅋ut it also had a hidden military agenda. Cook carried sealed orders instructing him to seek out the “Great Southern Continent,” an undiscovered landmass that was believed to lurk somewhere near the bottom of the globe. The explorer followed orders and sailed south to the 40th parallel, but found no evidence of the fabled continent. He then turned west and circled New Zealand, proving it was a pair of islands and not connected to a larger landmass. Cook would later resume his search for the Southern Continent during his second circumnavigation of the globe in the early 1770s, and came tantalizingly close to sighting Antarctica before pack ice forced him to turn back.

4. His ship Endeavour nearly sank on the Great Barrier Reef.
After landing in Australia during his first voyage, Cook pointed his ship north and headed for the Dutch seaport of Batavia. Because he was in unmapped territory, he had no idea he was sailing directly into the razor-sharp coral formations of the Great Barrier Reef. On June 11, 1770, his ship Endeavour slammed into a coral reef and began taking on water, endangering both his crew and his priceless charts of his Pacific discoveries. Cook’s men frantically pumped water out of the holds and threw cannons and other equipment overboard to lighten the ship’s weight. They even used an old sail to try and plug a hole in their hull. After more than 20 desperate hours, they finally stopped the leak and limped toward the Australian coast. It would take Cook nearly two months of repairs to make his ship seaworthy again.

Painting showing Cook’s ships Resolution and Adventure in Tahiti.

5. Cook helped pioneer new methods for warding off scurvy.
In the 18th century, the specter of scurvy𠅊 disease caused by a lack of vitamin C—loomed over every long distance sea voyage. Cook, however, managed to keep all three of his expeditions nearly scurvy-free. This was partially because of his obsession with procuring fresh food at each of his stops, but many have also credited his good fortune to an unlikely source: sauerkraut. While Cook didn’t know the cure or cause of scurvy, he did know that the nutrient-rich pickled cabbage seemed to keep the disease at bay, so he brought several tons of it on his voyages. His only problem was getting his crew to eat it. To trick them, Cook simply had sauerkraut 𠇍ressed every day” for the officers’ table. When the enlisted men saw their superiors eating it, they assumed it was a delicacy and requested some for themselves.

6. Even Britain’s enemies respected Cook.
While Cook’s journeys took place during a time when Britain was variously at war with the United States, Spain and France, his reputation as a pioneering explorer allowed him to travel the seas with relative impunity. In July 1772, a squadron of Spanish vessels briefly detained his ships, only to release them after they realized Cook in command. Likewise, when Cook’s third voyage set sail during the American Revolution, Benjamin Franklin wrote a memo to colonial ship captains instructing them to treat the British vessels as 𠇌ommon friends to mankind” if they encountered them at sea.

7. He searched for the Northwest Passage.
In 1776, a 47-year-old Cook set sail on his third voyage of discovery—this time a search for the elusive Northwest Passage in the Arctic. After traveling halfway around the world, he led the ships HMS Resolution and Discovery on a perilous survey of the upper coasts of western Canada and Alaska. Cook came within 50 miles of the western entrance to the passage, but his attempts to locate it were ultimately thwarted by freezing weather, violent currents and heavy ice floes in the Bering Sea. When the extreme conditions drove his crew to the brink of mutiny, Cook reluctantly turned south for the summer. He would die before he had a chance to resume his search.

Anchorage 1910 - 1940 Legends & Legacies

After his death, Sydney Laurence became internationally famous as “the foremost painter of Alaskan scenes” during the first three decades of the twentieth century. He painted Alaskan landscapes of “romantic and unspoiled Alaska” on such subjects as Mount McKinley (now Denali), rustic cabins and caches, oceans crashing on rocky coasts, and other dramatic scenes. He made his home in Anchorage for twenty-five years from 1915 to 1940. Laurence is best known for his paintings of Mount McKinley in many moods. In Anchorage, examples of his work are on public display at the Anchorage Museum Wells Fargo Bank’s Alaska Heritage Museum and Library and at Z.J. Loussac Library, Anchorage Public Library. 1

Early Years

Sydney Mortimer Laurence was born in Brooklyn, New York on October 14, 1865, to Edward Z. and Katherine Marris Leefe Laurence. Edward Laurence was an officer in the Union army during the American Civil War, and after the war worked in New York City, first in “wines” and later as a “broker.” 2

According to Laurence’s biographer, art historian Kesler Woodward, a number of accounts indicate that Laurence attended the Peekskill Military Academy in Peekskill, New York, between 1870 and 1885. There are assertions that Laurence studied art with the maritime painter Edward Moran, brother of Thomas Moran. There are numerous colorful, conflicting, and uncorroborated accounts of running away at sea” at the age of sixteen or seventeen for a period of from one to four years. By 1887 he was painting in New York City, and in 1888 and 1889 had work exhibited at the National Academy of Design in New York City. 3

On May 18, 1889 Laurence married Alexandrina Dupre, a fellow artist in New York City. Several noted artists, including Thomas Moran, and instructors at the Art Students League of New York attended his wedding. The couple, less than a week later, sailed for England to pass the summer on the scenic coast at St. Ives, Cornwall. Their stay at St. Ives, a fishing village and art colony, extended for nearly fifteen years.

In 1894, Laurence became a member of the Salmagundi Club in New York City, which included among its members several artists who were considered “tonalists,” a term for a new style of American painting which flourished from about 1880 to 1915 it was largely forgotten until the 1970s. Tonalism was a personal, more intimate style of landscape painting which encompassed “a particular attitude toward subject matter, color, and light.” Some of the features of Tonalism painting were the prevalence of a single color to which all others are subordinated landscape through a visible atmosphere or mist and lively brushwork and glazing to reach the final, desired “tone.” 4 Kesler Woodward believes that Laurence became associated with this style of American painting. Laurence continued to live in England, becoming a member of the Royal Society of British Artists and exhibiting in England and at the Paris Salon.

Laurence was also an illustrator-correspondent for several publications, including the British magazine Black and White starting in 1895, and, possibly, for the New York Herald during the Spanish-American War. In a 1934 interview for the Seattle Sunday Times, Laurence gave a colorful account of being clubbed over the head by a Zulu warrior while covering the Matebele Zulu Wars in South Africa in 1894, which resulted in the loss of hearing in his left ear. In 1900, he was promoted to special war artist by Black and White magazine and continued as an artist in the Boer War and the Boxer Rebellion and also began work as a professional photographer. 5

Alaska Years as Gold Prospector and Painter

Laurence’s work with Black and White magazine continued until 1903, when he apparently left London for Alaska to search for gold, abandoning his wife and two sons, Leslie, age eight and Eugene, age one. He arrived first in Juneau and obtained temporary work as a photographer. Hearing of gold discoveries in Cook Inlet, he prospected there and in the surrounding area. He left for Valdez sometime in 1904, prospecting for gold and working odd jobs in the winter. In November and December 1904, Alexandrina and their two sons sent several Christmas photograph postcards, addressed to Laurence at “Tyoonok (sic), Alaska”, and were the last known communications between him and his family. Laurence’s movements during his early years in Alaska are difficult to follow.

Laurence painted pictures of the Tyonek area while he stayed with Durrell Finch, the representative of the Alaska Commercial Company. The Anchorage Museum has a 1905 painting by Laurence, “Tyonek, Alaska,” which is dedicated to Finch. 6 In 1906, Laurence acted as Finch’s agent for a mining claim on Ramsdyke Creek. He also filed several mining claims in the Talkeetna recording district in his own name.

By 1909, Laurence was at various times in Cordova, Seldovia and Seward. He painted “Cordova Bay” (1909), a 14-foot panorama, which is in the Whatcom Museum in Bellingham, Washington. 7 Nellie Brown, a close friend of Laurence, stated that he worked with photographer E.A. Hegg in Cordova in 1907 or 1908. Laurence painted the bay from a nearby mountaintop, on commission from Hegg, who employed him to hand-tint photographs for a brief period. 8 Hegg made other small artistic efforts that had a pivotal effect on Laurence’s life by reawakening his neglected talent. 9 In the 1910 U.S. Census, he is listed as living in Beluga, married twenty years, and his occupation given as “mining.” 10 In 1911 he was perhaps in Tacoma, Washington, as there are several paintings signed “1911, Tacoma.” In 1912, he painted in Seldovia and beach mined near Ninilchik on the Kenai Peninsula.

Early in 1913, Laurence was grubstaked with $400 in gold and a letter of credit by a group in Valdez to paint Mount McKinley for exhibit at the Panama Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. He camped south of the mountain during the summer, returning to Valdez in the fall, and through the fall and early winter painted a 6-foot x 12-foot view of Mount McKinley. The painting, “Top of the Continent” (1914), 11 was accessioned into the National Collection of Fine Arts (now the National Museum of American Art) of the Smithsonian Institution in 1915. The piece remained in the custody of the Smithsonian Institution for more than fifty years, but it was later removed from the collection and has passed into private hands. 12 Laurence’s views of Mount McKinley were extremely popular both with locals and wealthy visitors and it became his signature image.

Anchorage Years (1915-1940)

In 1915, Laurence moved from Valdez to Anchorage, where he worked as a laborer on the Alaska Railroad, gold miner, and photographer, taking portraits at his photographic company in the Carrol Building on Fourth and E Streets. 13 The following year he moved his office to the Harmony Theatre. While not mining in the Cache Creek area near Talkeetna, Laurence lived at the new Anchorage Hotel, operated by Mr. and Mrs. Frank I. Reed. In 1919, he began to sell his paintings at Belle Simpson’s Nugget Shop, a well-known gift shop in Juneau. By 1920, he opened a studio in the Anchorage Hotel. By 1922 his paintings become more popular, and he closed his photography studio to pursue full-time painting. He continued to prospect, now for oil as well as gold in the Talkeetna recording district.

Laurence built up a reputation for his landscape and marine art, which was popular among Alaska residents as well as visitors. By 1923, he had been recognized as Alaska’s most prominent painter. President Warren G. Harding purchased one of Laurence’s paintings when he visited Alaska to open the Alaska Railroad. When Austin E. “Cap” Lathrop, a Fairbanks businessman, made the silent film melodrama, the Chechahcos (1923), Laurence painted the decorative borders for the subtitles and a series of six large landscapes that were used as transition frames in the film. 14 The art that he produced for the film introduced his work beyond Alaska, and he opened a second studio in Los Angeles in 1924. For the remainder of his life, Laurence spent his winters in California and summers in Anchorage. Laurence began to produce paintings for Carl Block of Peoria, Illinois, to be sold in Block’s department store throughout the 1930s. 15

In 1928, Laurence married a young French painter, Jeanne Kunath Holeman, in Los Angeles. 16 Jeanne joined Laurence in Anchorage in the summers and Los Angeles and Seattle during the colder months. In 1931 he had an exhibit at the Ebell Salon in Los Angeles, listed as his first exhibit in thirty years. He also had a slight stroke that affected his coordination and painting style later that year. In 1933 he gave up the studio in Los Angeles, although he continued to travel between Los Angeles, Seattle, and Alaska.

Sydney Mortimer Laurence died in Anchorage on September 11, 1940 after suffering a stroke. According to the Anchorage Daily Times, he had astonished his wife and friends the day before by announcing that he was going to die. The Times reported: “When he went to the barber shop during the afternoon he told friends that he was ‘getting prettied up to die’. He had a haircut and a shave. When he was through, he turned to a mirror, quirked his face, saluted his image and said, ‘Goodbye, old boy’.”

Laurence entered the hospital at 5:00 p.m. and ate a “hearty dinner.” He was in good spirits when friends visited him that evening. When his wife, Jeanne, bid him good night he said: “It’s goodbye this time. I won’t be here tomorrow.” 17 Laurence was buried in the Anchorage Memorial Park Cemetery. Jeanne Laurence died in Anchorage on August 13, 1980. 18

Alaska residents, particularly those in Anchorage, hold Laurence in great esteem, considering him a great artist with a national and international reputation. Kesler Woodward commented on the “extraordinary, almost mythic status Laurence enjoys in Alaska.” Woodward considers Laurence the “foremost historical painter of the Alaskan landscape.” In Woodward’s Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North (1990), he remarks, “At the same time, it is a sign of the continuing geographical and cultural remoteness of this northern state that the name of the painter and his work are little known outside of Alaska. Virtually every Alaska resident of a year or more knows Laurence’s name.” 19

In Sydney Laurence, His Life and Work (1982), Robert Shalkop, former director of the Anchorage Museum, stated that the earliest known exhibition of Laurence’s work was A Retrospective Exhibit of Paintings by Sydney Laurence. This exhibit was organized by the Cook Inlet Historical Society in 1957 and was on display on March 23-24 of that year in the Anchorage Municipal Auditorium. The show featured twenty-three paintings from local collections, and the public response was such that the hall was renamed the Sydney Laurence Auditorium. In 1975, the Anchorage Historical and Fine Arts Museum presented a major exhibition, Sydney Laurence, an Alaskan Impressionist to celebrate the opening of a new wing to the original museum building. 20 In 1985, the Alaska Center for the Performing Arts opened at 621 West Sixth Avenue. The Sydney Laurence Theater, one of the Center’s three theaters, was constructed within the walls of the theatre named for him that previously stood on the site. 21 In 1999, the world premiere of Syd, a stage portrait of Sydney Laurence, was performed by the Eccentric Theatre Company at Cyrano’s Playhouse in Anchorage, with Jerry Harper as the famous painter. 22 Until recently, the Anchorage Museum had a gallery devoted solely to his work, and many of his paintings can be found on display there. Besides oils and watercolors, the Anchorage Museum’s collection of his work includes photographs and pencil and ink sketches. Laurence’s paintings can also be found at the University of Alaska Museum of the North in Fairbanks, Alaska State Museum in Juneau, other museums, and in private collections.

The most authoritative source on Laurence is the catalog for an Anchorage Museum retrospective exhibit in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of Laurence’s death in 1990, written by Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North. Woodward acknowledges the great contribution of Sue Burrus who was principal biographical researcher for the Emmy award-winning public television documentary, Laurence of Alaska, which was produced by KAKM-TV (Alaska Public Television) in Anchorage in 1990. Also valuable is Jeanne Kunath Laurence’s account of her life with Sydney Laurence in My Life with Sydney Laurence (1974).

Click an image to see more

Sydney Laurence standing in front of a Model T Ford in 1928. There are a number of photographs of him with automobiles, although several stories indicate he was not a good or enthusiastic driver. Early Anchorage settler Nellie Brown took this photograph and later recollected that he let her drive him around in the automobile, and later the Model T became Nellie’s.

1980.194.10, Hedla Collection, Atwood Resource Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK.

Mildred Hamill holding a portrait of prominent Anchorage artist Sydney Laurence, the only known portrait for which Laurence actually sat. According to Hamill, Laurence asked that she paint his portrait and he sat for her every morning for a week. The painting is currently in the collection of the Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center.

B1963.11.7, Jim Balog, photographer, Mildred Hamill-Sydney Laurence Memorabilia, Atwood Resource Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK.

Sydney Laurence sold his paintings through a number of outlets. In Anchorage it was Hewitt’s Drug Store in Juneau, it was the Nugget Shop. This photograph of the Nugget Shop shows some of his paintings on the walls.

B1980.106.22, John Tweedy Photograph Collection, Atwood Resource Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK.

The figure on the ladder has been thought to be Sydney Laurence. Alberta Pyatt (nee Bouthillier) worked as an assistant to Sydney Laurence, but it is not clear which photographs were taken for his photography business, the Sydney Laurence Company, or under contract with the Alaskan Engineering Commission (AEC).

B1970.19.179, J.J. Delaney Collection, Atwood Resource Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK.

Nellie Brown with artist Sydney Laurence, possibly on shore near the Brown’s homestead near Green Lake (now on Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson), ca. 1920s.

B1989.11.34, Donald V. Johnson Collection, Atwood Resource Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK.

Laurence wearing an artist’s smock, holding a paintbrush, and posed near a painting easel. As Laurence became older, he wintered in Los Angeles, California and usually summered in Anchorage. He kept a painting studio in the Hotel Anchorage.

1994.002.261, Wennerstrom Collection, Atwood Resource Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK.

Sydney Laurence dressed for the trail. Laurence grubbed a living as a prospector when he first arrived in Alaska, a profession that required getting to remote areas usually on foot with pack horse in summer or by dog team in the winter. In 1913, he spent weeks alone travelling through the wilderness toward Mount McKinley (now Denali) to paint his first images of that mountain.

B1989.11.15, Donald V. Johnson Collection, Atwood Resource Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK.


  1. Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North (Seattle: University of Washington Press in association with the Anchorage Museum of History and Art, 1990), xi and Rae Arno, Anchorage Place Names: The Who and Why of Streets, Parks, and Places (Anchorage: Todd Communications), 2008), 46.
  2. Edward Laurence, 1880 U.S. Census, New York City, New York, ED 586, page 495C, National Archives Microfilm Publication T9, Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Roll 895, 1880 United States Federal Census [database on-line), (accessed October 19, 2014).
  3. Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, 123 Robert L. Shalkop, Sydney Laurence, His Life and Work: The Collection of the Anchorage Historical and Fine Arts Museum (Anchorage: Anchorage Historical and Fine Arts Museum, Municipality of Anchorage, 1982), 4 and Elizabeth Tower, Anchorage: From Its Humble Origins as a Railroad Construction Camp (Fairbanks: Epicenter Press,1999), 58-59.
  4. Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, 5-9.
  5. Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, 124-125 and Typescript, “Sydney Laurence,” Bagoy Family Pioneer Files (2004.11), Box 5, Atwood Resource Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK.
  6. See plate no. 14, “Tyonek, Alaska,” 1905 (cat. no. 14), oil on canvas over board, 23 ½ x 10, Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, 40.
  7. See plate no. 16, “Cordova Bay,” 1909 (cat. no. 16), oil on canvas, 35 x 191, Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, 42-43.
  8. Mary J. Barry, Jack and Nellie Brown: Pioneer Settlers of Anchorage, Alaska (Anchorage: M. J. Barry, 2000), 54-55 and Deloria Tarzan Ament, “Sydney Laurence: Northern Exposures from a Brooklyn Boy,” Seattle Times, September 30, 1990, (accessed January 31, 2015).
  9. Mary J. Barry, Jack and Nellie Brown: Pioneer Settlers of Anchorage, Alaska, 54-55.
  10. Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, 125.
  11. See photograph, “Top of the Continent,” 1914, oil on canvas, 71 x 95, Private Collection, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (photograph courtesy of National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution (illustrated in color in Arts and Connoisseur, June 1968), in Robert L. Shalkop, Sydney Laurence (1865-1940), an Alaskan Impressionist: [exhibition] February 28-March 30, 1975 (Anchorage: Anchorage Historical and Fine Arts Museum, 1975), 6.
  12. Robert L. Shalkop, Sydney Laurence, His Life and Work, 10 and Robert L. Shalkop, Sydney Laurence (1865-1940), an Alaskan Impressionist: [exhibition] February 28-March 30, 1975 (Anchorage: Anchorage Historical and Fine Arts Museum, 1975), 7-8.
  13. Rae Arno, Anchorage Place Names: The Who and Why of Streets, Parks, and Places, 46 and Claus-M. Naske and Ludwig J. Rowinski, Anchorage: A Pictorial History (Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Company, 1981), 115.
  14. Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, 127 Robert L. Shalkop, Sydney Laurence, His Life and Work, 10-11 and Elizabeth A. Tower, Alaska’s First Homegrown Millionaire: Life and Times of Cap Lathrop (Anchorage: Publication Consultants, 2006), 58-59.
  15. Elizabeth A. Tower, Anchorage: From Its Humble Origins as a Railroad Construction Camp, 59.
  16. The marriage certificate listed Sydney Laurence as a widower and Jeanne Kunath Holeman as divorced. See Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, 127 and Elizabeth A. Tower, Anchorage: From Its Humble Origins as a Railroad Construction Camp, 59.
  17. “Sydney Laurence Dies,” Anchorage Daily Times, September 12, 1940, 1.
  18. “Wildflower Artist Jeanne Laurence Dies at 93,” Anchorage Times, August 13, 1980, A-1.
  19. Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, xi.
  20. Robert L. Shalkop, Sydney Laurence, His Life and Work, 3 and Kesler E. Woodward, Sydney Laurence, Painter of the North, xii. Shalkop is also the author of the exhibit catalog, Sydney Laurence (1865-1940), an Alaskan Impressionist: [exhibition] February 28-March 30, 1975 (Anchorage: Anchorage Historical and Fine Arts Museum, 1975).
  21. Alison K. Hoagland, Buildings of Alaska (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 87.
  22. Program notes, Syd, Eccentric Theatre Company, Cyrano’s Playhouse, Anchorage, Alaska, in File: Sydney Laurence, Bagoy Family Pioneer Files (2004.11), Box 5, Atwood Research Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK.


This entry for Sydney Laurence originally appeared in John P. Bagoy, Legends & Legacies, Anchorage, 1910-1935 (Anchorage: Publications Consultants, 2001), 106-108. See also the Sydney Laurence file, Bagoy Pioneer Family Files (2004.11), Box 5, Atwood Resource Center, Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, Anchorage, AK. Note: edited, revised, and substantially expanded by Bruce Parham, January 31, 2015.

All About Jennifer Lawrence's Husband, Cooke Maroney

Back in June 2018, Jennifer Lawrence was spotted hanging out with a mysterious man that the internet eventually determined to be New York City-based art gallerist, Cooke Maroney. The couple, now reportedly getting married this weekend in Rhode Island, have made sure to keep their relationship out of the public eye as much as possible.

The couple has been married for more than 18 months now, but we still don't know very much about Lawrence's husband. This means it was a big deal when the couple was seen out together in NYC, wearing somewhat matching outfits. Lawrence wore a white crop top with pleated cream pants and white sneakers. She added rounded sunglasses with gold frames and a dark handbag.

Maroney walked by her side in tan pants and a white shirt.

But that still doesn't answer the question: Who is Cooke Maroney exactly? Below, an all-encompassing guide to what you need to know about Maroney before he and Lawrence get hitched.

He and Lawrence had an October 2019 wedding in Rhode Island.

TMZ first reported that the low-key pair would wed in Rhode Island on Saturday, October 19. News of the nuptials comes about a month after Maroney and Lawrence were spotted at an New York City marriage bureau, obtaining a license to wed.

In June of that year, the Oscar winner opened up on Catt Sadler's NAKED With Catt Sandler podcast about wedding planning&mdashand when she knew Maroney was the one.

"I definitely wasn&rsquot at a place where I was like, &lsquoI&rsquom ready to get married,'" she recalled. "I just met Cooke and I wanted to marry him. We wanted to marry each other. We wanted to commit fully. He&rsquos my best friend so I want to legally bind him to me forever. And fortunately the paperwork exists for such a thing. It&rsquos the greatest. You find your favorite person in the planet and you&rsquore like you can&rsquot leave. So I wanted to take that offer," she finished with a laugh.

It turns out TMZ was right. The two tied the knot on October 19 at the Belcourt estate in Newport, Rhode Island in front of an A-list guest list of Amy Schumer, Emma Stone, Bradley Cooper, Ashley Olsen, Adele, Kris Jenner, Sienna Miller, and Cameron Diaz.

Ahead of the wedding, the happy couple hosted a clam bake on Rose Island for their guests.

He grew up in Vermont.

Maroney's parents, James Maroney and Suki Fredericks, own an Oliver Hill Farm in Leicester, Vermont. According to Medium, his parents grew tired of raising their son in the city and decided to move further up north to start a farm. Before the move, Maroney's father was an art dealer in Manhattan and previously served as the Head of American Paintings at Christie's before trying to adapt to a more simplistic way of life. Maroney also has a younger sister named Annabelle.

He is an art gallerist.

Maroney followed in his father's footsteps with art. He currently serves as the director of New York City's Gladstone art gallery, which boasts a list of high profile clients. According to The Cut, he's previously worked with painter Carroll Dunham and Björk&rsquos ex-boyfriend, sculptor Matthew Barney. Before he worked at Gladstone, he worked at Gagosian gallery after he completed his NYU art history degree.

Maroney met Lawrence though a mutual friend.

Lawrence and Maroney were introduced to each other by the actress's best friend, Laura Simpson. &ldquoThey met through Jen&rsquos friend Laura&hellip.The relationship has been going on a few weeks. But they have been very private and careful not to be seen together,&rdquo a source told Page Six in June .

He's no stranger to parties.

Maroney is known for attending a fair amount of parties within the art world but does so in moderation and knows his limits. &ldquoHe&rsquos definitely fun-loving but I wouldn&rsquot say he&rsquos out of control,&rdquo a source told The Cut. &rdquoHe likes to have fun, a young good New York guy who likes to participate and have fun. When we would hang out, we would definitely drink, we would have fun.&rdquo

He's not very into using social media.

Maroney appears totally absent from Facebook and Twitter. At the moment, he only has a private Instagram page that's just shy of 2,000 followers.

He's great at making his wife happy.

While Lawrence and Maroney haven't spoken publicly about their relationship, sources have told tabloids that what they have is exceptional. &ldquoShe is smiling like I have never seen her do with any of her previous boyfriends,&rdquo a source told People in August 2018.

Us Weekly, meanwhile, reported in January 2019 that Lawrence and Maroney were very committed. &ldquoThings between them are very serious,&rdquo a source told the outlet. &ldquoThey definitely appear to be in it for the long haul.&rdquo

People reported in February 2019 that the two really work well together. &ldquoHe&rsquos a great guy,&rdquo a source told the outlet. &ldquoHe&rsquos smart and funny and I think really keeps her on her toes and he doesn&rsquot treat her like a celebrity like the other boyfriends did.&rdquo

Saint Lawrence

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Saint Lawrence, Lawrence also spelled Laurence, (died 258, Rome [Italy] feast day August 10), one of the most venerated Roman martyrs, celebrated for his Christian valour. He is the patron saint of the poor and of cooks.

Lawrence was among the seven deacons of the Roman church serving Pope Sixtus II, whose martyrdom preceded Lawrence’s by a few days: they were executed during the persecution under the Roman emperor Valerian. It is said that Lawrence gave the church’s treasures to the poor and the sick before his arrest. Although Lawrence was probably beheaded, St. Ambrose of Milan and the Latin poet Prudentius, among others, recorded that he was roasted to death on a gridiron, remarking to his torturers at one point, “I am cooked on that side turn me over, and eat.” Many conversions to Christianity throughout Rome reportedly followed Lawrence’s death, including those of several senators witnessing his execution. The Basilica of San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (St. Lawrence Outside the Walls), Rome, was built over his burial place. He is named in the canon of the Roman mass.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor.

Mount Vernon’s Slaves Are Freed

Washington’s will stipulated his slaves be emancipated upon Martha’s death, but she freed them in 1801, the year before she died. She could not legally free her dower slaves, however, and they were returned to the Custis estate and ownership passed to her grandchildren.

Martha may not have freed Mount Vernon’s slaves early out of the goodness of her heart since, according to Abigail Adams in a letter to her sister, the slaves knew they were to be freed upon her death and Martha feared they might kill her to hasten their freedom.

Abigail wrote, “[Martha] did not feel as [though] her life was safe in their hands, many of whom would be told that it was their interest to get rid of her–she therefore was advised to set them all free at the close of the year.”

Brother Lawrence

In tumultuous seventeenth-century France, with its power struggles, debts, and perpetual unrest, lived several spiritual luminaries whose wisdom still guides people today. Francis de Sales, Blaise Pascal, Madame Guyon, and Francois Fenelon all pursued an inner path of devotion to Jesus that shed light on both their world and ours.

Of all the shining lights of that century, though, none speak with the simplicity and humble grace of one lay monk whose quiet presence resided in the heart of turbulent Paris. More than any other of his day, Brother Lawrence understood the holiness available within the common business of life.


Moscow becomes independent patriarchate

Edict of Nantes (revoked 1685)

John Smyth baptizes self and first Baptists

J.S. Bach publishes first work

Most of what is known about Brother Lawrence comes through the efforts of Abbe de Beaufort, the Cardinal de Noailles's envoy and investigator. By 1666 Brother Lawrence's unusual wisdom had caught the cardinal's attention, and Beaufort was directed to interview the lowly kitchen aide. Upon ascertaining that Beaufort's interest was genuine, and not politically motivated, Brother Lawrence granted four interviews, "conversations," in which he describes his way of life and how he came to it.

Besides these recorded thoughts, Lawrence's fellow monks found in his personal effects several pages of Maxims , the only organized written material Brother Lawrence left. These, the conversations (now entitled The Practice of the Presence of God) and 16 letters represent Lawrence's full teaching.

God is in the kitchen

>He began life as Nicholas Herman, born to peasant parents in Lorraine, France. As a young man, his poverty forced him into joining the army, and thus he was guaranteed meals and a small stipend. During this period, Herman had an experience that set him on a unique spiritual journey it wasn't, characteristically, a supernatural vision, but a supernatural clarity into a common sight.

In the deep of winter, Herman looked at a barren tree, stripped of leaves and fruit, waiting silently and patiently for the sure hope of summer abundance. Gazing at the tree, Herman grasped for the first time the extravagance of God's grace and the unfailing sovereignty of divine providence. Like the tree, he himself was seemingly dead, but God had life waiting for him, and the turn of seasons would bring fullness. At that moment, he said, that leafless tree "first flashed in upon my soul the fact of God," and a love for God that never after ceased to burn. Sometime later, an injury forced his retirement from the army, and after a stint as a footman, he sought a place where he could suffer for his failures. He thus entered the Discalced Carmelite monastery in Paris as Brother Lawrence.

He was assigned to the monastery kitchen where, amidst the tedious chores of cooking and cleaning at the constant bidding of his superiors, he developed his rule of spirituality and work. In his Maxims, Lawrence writes, "Men invent means and methods of coming at God's love, they learn rules and set up devices to remind them of that love, and it seems like a world of trouble to bring oneself into the consciousness of God's presence. Yet it might be so simple. Is it not quicker and easier just to do our common business wholly for the love of him?"

For Brother Lawrence, "common business," no matter how mundane or routine, was the medium of God's love. The issue was not the sacredness or worldly status of the task but the motivation behind it. "Nor is it needful that we should have great things to do. . . We can do little things for God I turn the cake that is frying on the pan for love of him, and that done, if there is nothing else to call me, I prostrate myself in worship before him, who has given me grace to work afterwards I rise happier than a king. It is enough for me to pick up but a straw from the ground for the love of God."

Brother Lawrence retreated to a place in his heart where the love of God made every detail of his life of surpassing value. "I began to live as if there were no one save God and me in the world." Together, God and Brother Lawrence cooked meals, ran errands, scrubbed pots, and endured the scorn of the world.

He admitted that the path to this perfect union was not easy. He spent years disciplining his heart and mind to yield to God's presence. "As often as I could, I placed myself as a worshiper before him, fixing my mind upon his holy presence, recalling it when I found it wandering from him. This proved to be an exercise frequently painful, yet I persisted through all difficulties."

Only when he reconciled himself to the thought that this struggle and longing was his destiny did he find a new peace: his soul "had come to its own home and place of rest." There he spent the rest of his 80 years, dying in relative obscurity and pain and perfect joy.

The Cultural Turn in U. S. History

1          Twelve Propositions for a History of U.S. Cultural History

James W. Cook and Lawrence B. Glickman

Part II: Practicing Cultural History

Introduction by Michael O’Malley

3          Rags, Blacking, and Paper Soldiers: Money and Race in the Civil War

Shane White, Stephen Garton, Stephen Robertson, and Graham White

6          Behind Shirley Temple’s Smile: Children, Emotional Labor, and the Great Depression

7          Gimme Shelter: Do-It-Yourself Defense and the Politics of Fear

8          “Be Real Black for Me”: Representation, Authenticity, and the Cultural Politics of Black Power

9          Turning Structure into Culture: Reclaiming the Freeway in San Diego’s Chicano Park

Part III: Agendas for Cultural History

Introduction by Michael O’Malley

11        On Grief and Complicity: Notes toward a Visionary Cultural History

Watch the video: J LAWRENCE COOK What Is This Thing Called Love