Slab of king Rahotep

Slab of king Rahotep

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Khufu ( / ˈ k uː f uː / , full name Khnum Khufu / ˈ k n uː m ˈ k uː f uː / , known to the ancient Greeks as Cheops Old Egyptian: ḫw.f-wj /χawˈjafwij/) was an ancient Egyptian monarch who was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, in the first half of the Old Kingdom period (26th century BC). Khufu succeeded his father Sneferu as king. He is generally accepted as having commissioned the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but many other aspects of his reign are poorly documented. [5] [10]

The only completely preserved portrait of the king is a three-inch high ivory figurine found in a temple ruin of a later period at Abydos in 1903. All other reliefs and statues were found in fragments, and many buildings of Khufu are lost. Everything known about Khufu comes from inscriptions in his necropolis at Giza and later documents. For example, Khufu is the main character noted in the Westcar Papyrus from the 13th dynasty. [5] [10]

Most documents that mention king Khufu were written by ancient Egyptian and Greek historians around 300 BC. Khufu's obituary is presented there in a conflicting way: while the king enjoyed a long-lasting cultural heritage preservation during the period of the Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom, the ancient historians Manetho, Diodorus and Herodotus hand down a very negative depiction of Khufu's character. Thanks to these documents, an obscure and critical picture of Khufu's personality persists. [5] [10]

Rahotep and Nofret Sculpture Photos

rahotep and nofret egypt origins rahotep and nofret the many notable statuary discovered in egypt the two panion statutes of rahotep and nofret may be the most remarkable they are two famous painted limestone figures now on display in the cairo museum prince rahotep prince rahotep was a prince in ancient egypt during the 4th dynasty he was probably a son of pharaoh sneferu and his first wife although zahi hawass suggests his father was huni the ancient egypt site rahotep and nofret rahotep and nofret had several children the princes djedi neferkau and itu and the princesses mereret nedjemib and sethtet the quality and beauty of two marvellously preserved seated statues of rahotep and nofret found in 1871 in their brick mastaba at meidum confirm their high rank – rahotep and nofret sculpture

Shores of another garment beneath also revealing an elaborate example these were completely different women of cynopolis 4th dynasty of the two ways the increase of his younger brother of painted colors arent their identity and nofret hussein bassir the width at the rahotep and nfrt from meudum giza 4th dynasty old kingdom 4th dynasty old kingdom bce seated scribe from the ancient fert means beautifulnofret is a broad collar. In a shoulderlength dark wig we recognize the rulers and wife nofretpainted limestoneno space between the lack of another. Rahotep and nofret seated what are the elements, the lack of rahotep and turn on display in.


Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records and , including Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and historians alike call for caution in regard to the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report. [4] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective.

The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)): [5]

    (1st Dynasty) found on a cylinder seal in Den's tomb. It lists all 1st Dynasty kings from Narmer to Den by their Horus names. [6] (5th Dynasty) carved on an olivine-basalt slab. Broken into pieces and thus today incomplete. (6th Dynasty) painted with red, green and black ink on gypsum and cedar wood. Very selective. (6th Dynasty) carved on a black basalt slab. Very selective. (18th Dynasty) carved on limestone. Very selective. of Seti I (19th Dynasty) carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting some of the Kings from First Intermediate Period and all the kings from Second Intermediate Period of Egypt.
  • Abydos King List of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty) carved on limestone. Very selective. (19th Dynasty) carved on limestone. Contains most of the New Kingdom pharaohs up to Ramesses II. (19th Dynasty), carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting most kings of the 1st Dynasty for unknown reasons. (19th Dynasty) written with red and black ink on papyrus. Likely the most complete king-list in history, today damaged. (20th Dynasty) carved on limestone and very similar to the Ramesseum king list. 's Aegyptiaca (Greek Period) possibly written on papyrus. The original writings are lost today and many anecdotes assigned to certain kings seem fictitious.

The Predynastic Period ends around 3100 BC when Egypt was first unified as a single kingdom.

Lower Egypt Edit

Lower Egypt geographically consists of the northern Nile and the Nile delta.

The following list may be incomplete:

Upper Egypt Edit

Upper Egypt refers to the region up-river to the south of Lower Egypt.

Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty 00:

Image Name Comments Reign
[Finger Snail] The existence of this king is very doubtful. [16] Naqada III
[Fish [17] ] Only known from artifacts that bear his mark, around 3300–3250 BC. He most likely never existed. [16] Naqada III
[Elephant [18] ] Around 3300 – 3250 BC more than likely never existed Naqada III
[Stork [19] [20] ] Most likely never existed. [16] Naqada III
[Bull] Most likely never existed. [16] Naqada III
[Scorpion I] First ruler of Upper Egypt, around 3300 – 3250 BC. Naqada III

Predynastic rulers: Dynasty 0 Edit

Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0".

The following list of predynastic rulers may be incomplete:

Image Name Comments Dates
[Crocodile] Potentially read Shendjw identity and existence are disputed. [21] Around 3170 BC
Iry-Hor Correct chronological position unclear. [22] Around 3170 BC
Ka Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear. [23] Around 3170 BC
[Scorpion II] Potentially read Serqet possibly the same person as Narmer. [24] Around 3170 BC

The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt stretches from around 3100 to 2686 BC. [25]

First Dynasty Edit

The First Dynasty ruled from around 3100 to 2890 BC. [25]

His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris.

First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity-name.

Known for his ominous nebwy-title. [29]

First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo Stone.

Ruled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs.

Second Dynasty Edit

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC. [25]

First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg.

May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs.

Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.

Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed. [35]

Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.

Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from along-lasting drought. [38]

May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.

The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the long period of stability and growth following the Early Dynastic Period and preceding the troubled First Intermediate Period. The kingdom spanned from 2686 to 2181 BC. [41]

Third Dynasty Edit

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC. [41]

Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep.

In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid, the remains of a 2-year old infant were found. [46]

Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru, not Huni.

Fourth Dynasty Edit

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2496 BC. [41]

Reigned 48 years, giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. For a long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Sneferu's work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler. [48]

Built the Great Pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist in the Westcar Papyrus. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.

Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer extant it is believed the Romans re-purposed the materials from which it was made.

His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra.

Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.

Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan. Possibly fictional.

His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due to an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in the shape of a cow.

Fifth Dynasty Edit

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2496 to 2345 BC. [41]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Userkaf Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir. 2496–2491 BC
Sahure Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid. 2490–2477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer 2477–2467 BC
Neferefre Son of Neferirkare 2460–2458 BC
Shepseskare Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure. [49] A few months
Nyuserre Ini Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis. 2445–2422 BC
Menkauhor Kaiu Last pharaoh to build a sun temple 2422–2414 BC
Djedkare Isesi Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne. 2414–2375 BC
Unas The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts 2375–2345 BC

Sixth Dynasty Edit

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC. [41]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Teti According to Manetho, he was murdered. 2345–2333 BC
Userkare Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti 2333–2332 BC
Meryre Pepi I Faced conspiracies and political troubles yet became the most prolific builder of his dynasty 2332–2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I 2283–2278 BC
Neferkare Pepi II Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years. 2278–2183 BC
Neferka Reigned during Pepi II was possibly his son or co-ruler. Possibly writing mistake for "Neferkare" 2200–2199 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II [50] Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II. 1 year and 1 month c. 2183 BC
Neitiqerty (Nitocris) Siptah I Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho. [51] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2182–2179 BC

The First Intermediate Period (2183–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties Edit

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years (possibly 2181 to 2160 BC [52] ). They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved. The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen [53] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era. [54]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Menkare Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit. [55] [56] [57] Probably short, around 2181 BC
Neferkare II Unknown
Neferkare III Neby Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara. Unknown
Djedkare Shemai Unknown
Neferkare IV Khendu Unknown
Merenhor Unknown
Neferkamin Unknown
Nikare Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal. Unknown
Neferkare V Tereru Unknown
Neferkahor Attested by a cylinder seal. Unknown
Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Unknown to 2171 BC
Neferkamin Anu Around 2170 BC
Qakare Ibi Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts 2175–2171 BC
Neferkaure Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos. 2167–2163 BC
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay. 2163–2161 BC
Neferirkare Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min. 2161–2160 BC

Ninth Dynasty Edit

The Ninth Dynasty [58] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC. [59]

The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial. [58]

Image Name Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I) Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. 2160 BC–unknown
Neferkare VII Unknown
n Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II) Unknown
Senenh— or Setut Unknown
Mery— Unknown
Shed— Unknown
H— Unknown

Tenth Dynasty Edit

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt and ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC. [59]

Image Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor 2130 BC–unknown
Neferkare VIII Between 2130 and 2040 BCE
Wahkare Khety III (Acthoes III) Unknown
Merykare Unknown–2040 BC

Eleventh Dynasty Edit

The Eleventh Dynasty originated from a group of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Image Name Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Theban nomarch (Iry-pat) serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty. Unknown

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Nominally a Theban nomarch (Tepy-a) but may have ruled independently. Unknown – 2133 BC [59]
Sehertawy Intef I First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name. 2133–2117 BC [59]
Wahanakh Intef II Conquered Abydos and its nome. 2117–2068 BC [59]
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome. [60] 2068–2060 BC [59]

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom.

The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.

Eleventh Dynasty cont. Edit

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is usually considered to be the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Segerseni [64] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty. Early 20th century BC
Qakare Ini [64] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty. Early 20th century BC
Iyibkhentre [64] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty. Early 20th century BC

Twelfth Dynasty Edit

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I [65] [66] Possibly overthrew Mentuhotep IV. Assassinated by his own guards. 1991–1962 BC
Kheperkare Senusret I [67] (Sesostris I) Built the White Chapel 1971–1926 BC
Nubkaure Amenemhat II [68] Ruled for at least 35 years. 1929–1895 BC
Khakheperre Senusret II [69] (Sesostris II) 1897–1878 BC
Khakaure Senusret III [70] (Sesostris III) Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. 1878–1860 BC
Nimaatre Amenemhat III [71] 1860–1815 BC
Maakherure Amenemhat IV [72] Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Knossos. 1815–1807 BC
Sobekkare Sobekneferu [73] The first known archeologically attested female Pharaoh. 1807–1802 BC

The position of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, is uncertain. He may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a king of the 12th or 13th Dynasty.

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Sometime around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

Thirteenth Dynasty Edit

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho.

This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies 1802–1800 BC [74]
Mehibtawy Sekhemkare Amenemhat Sonbef Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV [74] 1800–1796 BC [74]
Nerikare Attested on a Nile record from Semna. [75] 1796 BC
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V Ruled for 3 to 4 years [74] 1796–1793 BC [74]
Ameny Qemau Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur 1795–1792 BC
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef Also called Sehotepibre 1792–1790 BC
Iufni Only attested on the Turin canon Very short reign, possibly c. 1790–1788 BC [74]
Seankhibre Amenemhat VI Attested on the Turin Canon. [76] 1788–1785 BC
Semenkare Nebnuni Attested on the Turin Canon [77] 1785–1783 BC [74] or 1739 BC [78]
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy Attested on the Turin Canon. [79] 1783–1781 BC [74]
Sewadjkare I Known only from the Turin canon 1781 BCE
Nedjemibre Known only from the Turin canon 7 months, 1780 BC [74] or 1736 BC [78]
Khaankhre Sobekhotep Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies Reigned c. 3 years, 1780–1777 BC [74]
Renseneb 4 months 1777 BC [74]
Awybre Hor Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 1777–1775 BC [74]
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Khabaw Possibly a son of Hor Awibre Estimated reign 3 years, 1775–1772 BC [74]
Djedkheperew Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer Estimated reign 2 years, 1772–1770 BC [74]
Sebkay Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay. [74]
Sedjefakare A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. 5 to 7 years or 3 years, 1769–1766 BC [74]
Khutawyre Wegaf Founder of the dynasty in old studies Around 1767 BC
Userkare Khendjer Possibly the first Semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765 BC
Smenkhkare Imyremeshaw Attested by two colossal statues Reigned less than 10 years, starting 1759 BC [74] or 1711 BC. [80]
Sehetepkare Intef IV Less than 10 years
Seth Meribre Reign ended 1749 BCE
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III 4 years and 2 months 1755–1751 BC
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I 11 years 1751–1740 BC
Menwadjre Sihathor Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently. 1739 BC [74]
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV 10 or 11 years 1740–1730 BC
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V 1730 BC
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI 4 years 8 months and 29 days Around 1725 BC
Wahibre Ibiau 10 years and 8 months 1725–1714 BC or 1712–1701 BC [74]
Merneferre Ay I Longest reigning king of the dynasty 23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 1701–1677 BC [74] or 1714–1691 BC
Merhotepre Ini Possibly a son of his predecessor 2 years, 3 or 4 months and 9 days, 1677–1675 BC [74] or 1691–1689 BC
—< Sankhenre Sewadjtu Attested only on the Turin canon 3 years and 2–4 months, 1675–1672 BC [74]
Mersekhemre Ined May be the same person as Neferhotep II 3 years, 1672–1669 BC [74]
Sewadjkare II Hori Reigned 5 years 5 years
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII Reigned 2 years and 6 months [74] 1664–1663 BC [74]
Seven kings Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon [74] 1663 BC –? [74]
Mer[. ]re Unknown
Merkheperre Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [74]
Merkare Attested only on the Turin canon Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [74]
Name lost Unknown
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V Around 1655 BC [74]
[. ]mosre Unknown
Ibi [. ]maatre Unknown
Hor[. ] [. ]webenre Unknown
Se. kare Unknown Unknown
Seheqenre Sankhptahi May be the son of his predecessor Between 1663 and 1649 BC
. re Unknown Unknown
Se. enre Unknown Unknown – 1649 BC [74]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Djedhotepre Dedumose I Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty Around 1654 BC
Djedneferre Dedumose II Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty Unknown
Sewahenre Senebmiu Late 13th dynasty. After 1660 BC. [74]
Mershepsesre Ini II Late 13th dynasty. Unknown
Menkhaure Snaaib Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty Unknown

Fourteenth Dynasty Edit

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris, [81] that ruled from either 1805 BC or around 1710 BC until around 1650 BC.

The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin. It is here given according to Ryholt however, this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Sekhaenre Yakbim Chronological position uncertain, here given according to Ryholt [81] 1805–1780 BC
Nubwoserre Ya'ammu Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt [81] 1780–1770 BC
Khawoserre [81] Qareh Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt [81] 1770–1760 BC
Ahotepre [81] 'Ammu Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt [81] 1760–1745 BC
Maaibre Sheshi [82] Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given according to Ryholt. [81] Alternatively, he could be an early Hyksos king, a Hyksos ruler of the second part of the 15th Dynasty or a vassal of the Hyksos. 1745–1705 BC
Aasehre Nehesy Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi [81] Around 1705
Khakherewre Unknown
Nebefawre Around 1704 BC
Sehebre Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh [74] Around 1704 to 1699 BC
Merdjefare Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh [74] Around 1699 BC
Sewadjkare III Unknown
Nebdjefare 1694 BC
Webenre Unknown
Djefare? Unknown
Webenre Around 1690 BC
Nebsenre [81] Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen At least 5 months of reign, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Sekheperenre [81] Attested by a single scarab seal 2 months, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BX
Djedkare [81] Anati Only known from the Turin canon Unknown
Bebnum [81] Only known from the Turin canon Some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
'Apepi [81] Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals c. 1650 BC

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Khamure [74] Unknown
Nuya [74] Attested by a scarab-seal Unknown
Sheneh [74] May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare Unknown
Shenshek [74] Attested by a scarab-seal Unknown
Wazad [74] May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare Around 1700 BC ?
Yakareb [74] Unknown
Yaqub-Har [82] May belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. Possibly the Pharaoh that was mentioned in Genesis 41. 17th–16th centuries BC

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

Fifteenth Dynasty Edit

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Image Name Comments Dates
Salitis Ruled Lower Egypt and founded the 15th Dynasty around 1650 BCE
Semqen Chronological position uncertain. 1649 BC – Unknown
'Aper-'Anat Chronological position uncertain. Unknown
Sakir-Har Unknown
Khyan Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign likely 30-35 years
Apepi 1590 BC?
Khamudi 1555–1544 BC

Abydos Dynasty Edit

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from around 1650 BC until 1600 BC. [83] [84] [85]

Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Woseribre Senebkay Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[. ]re of the Turin canon. Around 1650 BC
Menkhaure Snaaib May belong to the late 13th Dynasty. [86] [87] [88] Uncertain
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny May belong to the late 16th Dynasty [89] Uncertain
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf May belong to the late 16th Dynasty [89] Uncertain

Sixteenth Dynasty Edit

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th dynasty around 1650 BC. They were finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty around 1580 BC.

The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List and cannot be recovered Unknown
Sekhemresementawy Djehuti 3 years
Sekhemreseusertawy Sobekhotep VIII 16 years
Sekhemresankhtawy Neferhotep III 1 year
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi May be a king of the 17th Dynasty [87] <l1 year
Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I 26 years
Neferkare (?) Nebiryraw II Around 1600 BC
Semenre Around 1600 BC
Seuserenre Bebiankh 12 years
Djedhotepre Dedumose I May be a king of the 13th Dynasty [87] Around 1588–1582 BC
Djedneferre Dedumose II Around 1588–1582 BC
Djedankhre Montemsaf Around 1590 BC
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI Short reign, around 1585 BC
Seneferibre Senusret IV Unknown
Sekhemre Shedwast May be the same as Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II Unknown

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III [90] and Nebmaatre. Their chronological position is uncertain. [86] [87]

Seventeenth Dynasty Edit

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep Around 1620 BC
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I At least 7 years
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramesses IX. Unknown to around 1573 BC
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V Possibly around 1573-1571 BC
Nubkheperre Intef VI Reigned more than 3 years Around 1571 to the mid-1560s BC
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII Late 1560s BC
Senakhtenre Ahmose Around 1558 BC
Seqenenre Tao Died in battle against the Hyksos. 1558–1554 BC
Wadjkheperre Kamose 1554–1549 BC

The early 17th Dynasty may also have included the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain. [74]

The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Three of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, Tutankhamun known for the discovery of his nearly intact tomb, and Ramesses II who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty Edit

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akhenaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun others speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten. May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten.

Nineteenth Dynasty Edit

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I [92] Of non-royal birth. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir. 1292–1290 BC
Menmaatre Seti I Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten. 1290–1279 BC
Usermaatre Setpenre (Ozymandias) Ramesses II the Great Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a stalemate with the Hittite Empire at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the famous Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. Had one of the longest Egyptian reigns. 1279–1213 BC
Banenre Merneptah [93] Thirteenth son of Ramesses II. 1213–1203 BC
Menmire Setpenre Amenmesse Most likely a usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II. Suggested son of Merneptah. 1203–1200 BC
Userkheperure Seti II [94] Son of Merneptah. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne. 1203–1197 BC
Sekhaenre / Akhenre (Merenptah) Siptah [95] Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse, ascended to throne at a young age. 1197–1191 BC
Satre Merenamun Tausret Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret. 1191–1190 BC

Twentieth Dynasty Edit

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakhte Not related to Seti II, Siptah, or Tausret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Also called Setnakt. 1190–1186 BC
Usermaatre Meryamun Ramesses III Son of Setnakhte. Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. Possibly assassinated (Harem conspiracy). 1186–1155 BC
Usermaatre / Heqamaatre Setpenamun Ramesses IV Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline. 1155–1149 BC
Usermaatre Sekheperenre Ramesses V Son of Ramesses IV 1149–1145 BC
Nebmaatre Meryamun Ramesses VI Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV. Uncle of Ramesses V. 1145–1137 BC
Usermaatre Setpenre Meryamun Ramesses VII Son of Ramesses VI. 1137–1130 BC
Usermaatre Akhenamun Ramesses VIII An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI. Uncle of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found. 1130–1129 BC
Neferkare Setpenre Ramesses IX Probably grandson of Ramesses III through his father, Montuherkhopshef. First cousin of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. 1129–1111 BC
Khepermaatre Setpenptah Ramesses X [96] A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain. 1111–1107 BC
Menmaatre Setpenptah Ramesses XI [97] Possibly the son of Ramesses X. During the second half of his reign, High Priest of Amun Herihor ruled over the south from Thebes, limiting his power to Lower (Northern) Egypt. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes. 1107–1077 BC

The Third Intermediate Period (1077–664 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire at the end of the Bronze Age. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty Edit

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-Setpenre Nesbanebdjed I [98] (Smendes I) Married to Tentamun, probable daughter of Ramesses XI. 1077–1051 BC
Neferkare Amenemnisu Obscure four-year reign. 1051–1047 BC
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I) Son of Pinedjem I, a High Priest of Amun. Ruled for 40 to 51 years. Famous for his intact tomb at Tanis. Known as "The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty. 1047–1001 BC
Usermaatre Amenemope Son of Psusennes I. 1001–992 BC
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon the Elder Son of Shoshenq A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Also known as Osochor. 992–986 BC
Netjerikheperre-Setpenamun Siamun Unknown Origins. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty. 986–967 BC
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II) Son of Pinedjem II, a High Priest of Amun. 967–943 BC

Theban High Priests of Amun Edit

Though not officially pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.

The coronation feast was not one event but rather a long lasting process including several festivals, rites and ceremonies lasting up to a full year. For this reason, Egyptologists today describe the year that a new pharaoh accessed to power as the "year of the coronation". [1] [2] [3]

The earliest depictions of rites and ceremonies concerning an accession to the throne may be found on objects from the reign of the predynastic king Scorpion II, circa 3100 BC. At this time, the change between rulers may have been marked by wars and invasions from neighboring Egyptian proto-kingdoms. This is similar to the military action taken by enemies of Egypt in later history: for example, upon hearing the news of Hatshepsut's death, the king of Kadesh advanced his army to Megiddo in the hope that Thutmose III would not be in a position to respond. From king Narmer (founder of the 1st Dynasty) onwards, wars between Egyptian proto-kingdoms may have been replaced by symbolic ceremonies and festivals. [1] [4]

The most important sources of information about accessions to the throne and coronation ceremonies are the inscriptions of the Palermo stone, a black basalt stone slab listing the kings from the 1st Dynasty down to king Neferirkare Kakai, third pharaoh of the 5th Dynasty. The stone also records various events during a king's reign, such as the creation of statues, city and domain foundations, cattle counts and religious feasts such as the Sed festival. The stone also gives the exact date of a ruler's accession to the throne. The first year of a ruler on the throne, the "year of coronation", was not counted in a king's regnal year count, and the stone mentions only the most important ceremonies that took place in this year. [1] [2] [3] [4]

As already mentioned, the coronation included several, long lasting festivals, rites and ceremonies the king had to celebrate first, before he or she was allowed to wear the crown(s) of Egypt. The following describes the most important ceremonies:

The "unification of Upper and Lower Egypt" may have been connected with the traditional "smiting of the enemy" in predynastic times, a ritual in which the leader of the defeated realm was struck dead with a ceremonial mace by the victorious king. The most famous depiction of this ritual may be seen on the ceremonial palette of king Narmer. On the reverse of the palette, mythological and symbolic elements have been added to this picture: the two serpopards (leopards with unusually elongated necks) with entwined necks may symbolize a more peaceful unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Another symbolic depiction of the unification feast appears on a throne relief dating to the reign of king Senusret I, second pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty. It shows the deities Horus and Seth wrapping a papyrus haulm and a lotus haulm around a trachea ending in a djed pillar, an act representing the enduring unification of the two lands under Senusret I. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Circumambulation of the White Walls

The ceremony of the "circumambulation of the White Walls" is known from the inscriptions on the Palermo stone. According to legends, the "White Walls", in Egyptian Inebu Hedj, today's Memphis, were erected by the mythical king Menes as the central seat of government of Egypt. The circumambulation of the walls of Memphis, celebrated with a ritual procession around the city, was performed to strengthen the king's right to the throne and his claim to the city as his new seat of power. [1] [2] [3] [4]

The feast "appearance of the king" is likewise known from inscriptions on the Palermo stone. This feast was held immediately after the coronation, as a confirmation of the king's right to rule. After the end of the year of the coronation, the feast was celebrated every second year. Much later Egyptian sources reveal that this feast comprised three steps: first was the "appearance of the King of Upper Egypt", in Egyptian khaj-nisut, then came the "appearance of the king of Lower Egypt", in Egyptian khaj-bitj, and finally the "appearance of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt", khaj-nisut-bitj. The earliest known mention of this feast dates back to king Djoser, first pharaoh of 3rd Dynasty. [1] [2] [3] [4]

One of the most important feasts of Ancient Egypt linked with a king's time on the throne was the Sed festival, the heb-sed. It included many complex rituals, which are not fully understood up to this day and which are seldom depicted. The first celebration of the feast was held during the year of the coronation. After that, the next celebration was held in the 30th year of the pharaoh on the throne, and the Sed festival was thus named by the ancient Greeks as the Triakontaeteris, meaning "30-year-jubilee". After this jubilee, the Sed feast was normally celebrated every third year, although this rule was broken by various pharaohs, in particular Ramses II who celebrated a total of 14 Sed festivals in 64 years on the throne. Early dynastic rulers, for which at least one Sed feast is archaeologically attested, include Narmer, Den, Qa'a, Nynetjer and possibly Wadjenes. Rare depictions of rites associated to the Sed festival come from Old Kingdom reliefs found in galleries beneath Djoser's step pyramid at Saqqara, as well as from Dashur, dating to the reign of Sneferu (the founder of the 4th Dynasty).

Some kings simply claimed to have celebrated a Sed festival, despite archaeological evidences proof that they did not rule for 30 years. Such kings include Anedjib (in the 1st Dynasty) and Akhenaten, in the 18th Dynasty. [1] [2] [3] [4]

The "Sokar festival" is – alongside the Sed festival – one of the oldest festivals. It is already mentioned on predynastic artefacts and often mentioned on ivory labels belonging to the kings Scorpion II, Narmer, Aha and Djer. The early forms of this feast included the creation of a ceremonial rowing boat with a cult image of the god Sokar. The boat was then pulled by the king to a sacred lake or to the Nile. Another ritual was the erecting of a richly loaded djed-pillar. In early times, the feast was celebrated during the coronation in attempt to mark the (physical or symbolic) death of the predecessor, from 2nd dynasty onwards, the Sokar feast was repeated every sixth year, the fifth celebration coincided with the Sed festival. As far as is known, the ceremony of the Sokar feast was connected as well to the coronation of a new king as to the foundation of his future tomb. Sokar was the god of the underworld and one of the holy guardians of royal cemeteries. [1] [2]

Suckling of the young king

This ceremony was introduced during the 6th dynasty under king Pepy II who acceded to the throne aged 6. The "suckling of the young king" was never performed practically but rather represented through small figurines depicting the king as a naked toddler, sitting on the lap of the goddess Isis, being breastfed by her. This representation may have been created to ostentate the divine nature of the pharaoh. The king breastfed by Isis may have inspired later Christian artists to create the Madonna and child portraits. Later pharaonic pictures show the king as a young man being breastfed by the holy Imat-tree. [2] [3] [4]

Inheritance rights Edit

The right to the throne of Egypt was normally inherited by direct filiation, the eldest son being the heir of his father. Occasionally the throne was inherited between brothers, for example from Djedefre to Khafre. [5] It is worth mentioning a possible case of peaceful throne succession via interfamiliar negotiation which may have happened at the end of Nynetjer's rule. Because he possibly decided to separate Upper and Lower Egypt, he may have chosen two of his sons at the same time to rule over the two lands. [2] [3] [5] A later example, namely that of Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai, may provide a case of dynastic problems between two separate but related royal houses. It is possible that one of Sahure's son, Shepseskare, tried to succeed his nephew Neferefre on throne after the latter died unexpectedly. This is likely to have created a dynastic feud as Nyuserre Ini, a son of Neferefre, finally assumed the throne only a few months later. [2] [3] [5] The throne could also be obtained by marriage in case the only living heir was a woman as may have been the case from Sneferu to Khufu. [5]

Election Edit

In this context, Egyptologists such as Sue D'Auria, Rainer Stadelmann and Silke Roth point to a problem mostly ignored by mainstream of scholars: There have demonstrably been crown princes, especially during the Old Kingdom period, who held the highest imaginable honorary and functionary titles at their lifetimes, but they never became kings, despite the fact, that they definitively survived their ruling fathers. Such known crown princes include: Nefermaat, Rahotep (both under the reign of Snofru), Kawab and Khufukhaf(crown princes of Khufu), Setka (crown prince of Radjedef) and, possibly, Kanefer. The famous vizir Imhotep, who held office under king Djoser, was even entitled as "twin of the king", but Djoser was followed by either Sekhemkhet or Sanakht, not by Imhotep. This leads to the question as what exactly happened during the election of the next throne successor and who of the royal family was allowed to raise any inheritance claims. It also remains unclear, who of the royal family was permitted to vote for the throne successor. The exact details of the election process are unknown, because they were never written down. Thus, no contemporary document explains as under which conditions a crown prince received inheritance rights and why so many crown princes were never crowned. [5] [6]

Rainer Stadelmann points to an ancient society within the Egyptian elite, which existed as early as the predynastic time: the "Great Ten of Upper Egypt/Lower Egypt". These two societies consisted of altogether twenty elite officials of unknown origin, who possibly were responsible for the solving of any political and dynastic problem. Stadelmann explains, that most of all known, traditional offices were described in their missions and functions, except for the office "One of the Great Ten of. ". And yet, this very title seemed to have been one of the most regarded and wanted, as only officials with many honorary titles were bearing it (for example, Hesyra). For this reason, Stadelmann and D'Auria believe, that the "Great Ten" consisted of some kind of royal court of justice. [6]

Unwrapping the Pharaohs

Adults and children alike are fascinated by Egyptian civilization. But most modern archaeologists have lately tried to use Egyptian chronology to dispute the biblical record. Secular textbooks and videos challenge the faith of students and discredit the biblical account of Exodus. Those who wish to defend the accuracy of the Bible now have an incredible tool in this exciting book that provides compelling confirmation of the biblical account.

The show claims that the granite and diorite used in Bolivia’s Pumapunku monument could have only been cut with tools that had diamond tips, which humans didn’t have in the era it was built. But Pumapunku isn’t made from granite and diorite at all. It’s red sandstone and andesite, which were commonly used by ancient humans

Going along with the above, Ancient Aliens also asserted that the stone slabs at Pumapunku are much too heavy for humans to move without any kind of machinery. Specifically, a single slab weighs 800 tons.

But that’s just false. The largest stone slab at Pumapunku actually weighs just 131 tons.

The curious story of the paving slab in front of Cambridge's King's College

Walking past King&aposs College it&aposs hard not to take your eyes off the beautiful chapel as you head down Cambridge&aposs King&aposs Parade.

With the grandiose Senate House, perfectly manicured lawns and breathtaking architecture, the whole scene is a feast for the eyes packed with history.

But there&aposs more than the towering architecture of the college, if you&aposre walking by the college, past all the tourists eating lunch on the wall, you may have looked down and noticed something slightly unusual.

There&aposs a single paving slab a slightly different colour to the rest, which looks slightly newer and is inscribed with the words "High Maintenance Life".

We&aposve noticed this a few times while strolling along the iconic King&aposs Parade and were baffled at its meaning and how it got there, so we knew we had to look into its origin story.

"They thought I was a council official"

It turns out the slab was surreptitiously installed by German artist and stonemason Ekkehard Altenburger.

He grew up on a farm on the German-Swiss border and in his early career worked as a master mason on the Gothic cathedral of Schwaebisch Gmuend in South Germany, before moving into sculpture work.

He has resided in the UK since 1995, attending both the Edinburgh College of Art and Chelsea College of Art. He has also produced several video installations.

It looks as though the artist has flown under the radar, with his online presence fairly limited, however, he was one of several artists who won the Jerwood Sculpture awards in 2001 and in their catalogue he mentioned the slab.

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The entry reads: "Three years ago, he used his technical prowess as a carver to incise a stone slab with the words ‘High Maintenance Life.’

Although he lodged it in the pavement at the centre of Cambridge, nobody objected or tried to stop him.&apos

"They thought I was a council official", he says, "and my slab has been there ever since. I just wanted to question how things progress, to take a step back and look at the system as a whole".

Local history

&aposMemories are hazy&apos

Cambridge County Council&aposs Highways Office previously said that given the fact it goes back some time, "memories are hazy".

However, the office added that someone recalled it being part of a scheme in association with an art installation but it could not confirm this.

At the time of writing the original version of this story in December 2019, Cambridge City Council were looking into the origins of the slab upon CambridgeshireLive&aposs request.

Where does Joseph fit into Egyptian History?

Estimates of dates have long been the common denominator used by archaeologists and historians alike when trying to piece together ancient history.

Various archaeologists such as Petrie have used a number of different dating methods to estimate how old a particular artifact is. For example, the type of pottery that is predominant in a layer can be used to date the layer. As creationists have noted however, dating methods are highly unrealiable and cannot be trusted as authoritative.

Assumptions behind various dating techniques are not always right. This can sometimes lead to artifacts being incorrectly dated by as much as 1000 to 2000 years.

If history is pieced together based only upon the estimated dates of particular dynasties, the results can be quite erroneous and it will be little wonder why Egyptian and Hebrew history does not fit together and why no Egyptian equivalent of Joseph has been found using the dates traditionally ascribed to various Egyptian dynasties.

An increasing number of historians are now calling into question the dates of Egyptian dynasties. In particular, Sweeney [15][21][19][48], Velikovski [49][50][51], Fry [52] [12] [53][16][54][55][56][57][58][59][20], Reilly [13][17][60][22] Down [18]. They have proposed revisions of the Egyptian timeline which generally contract the Egyptian time frame and bring the dates of the Egyptian dynasties forwards. The revised Egyptian dates when aligned with the Biblical dates suggest new candidates for Biblical figures which now need to be confirmed by Character matching and Archaeological discoveries.

Using their revised dating systems, the historical records of Israel and Egypt fit together differently, purportedly making it possible to identify likely contemporaries of important Biblical Characters.

Conventional wisdom which has been very reliant on the Biblical record and timeframes, has been unable to find any evidence that the Patriarchs of Israel lived in Egypt and have not found any possible candidates for Joseph because they are looking for evidence of him in the Hyksos dynasty which is estimated to have been around 1700BC according to conventional chronology.

Many scholars have tried to place the Exodus in the 18th dynasty because of arguments related to when chariots were first introduced to Egypt. A lot of emphasis has been placed on this one point and seems to have sent many an archaeologist on a 'wild goose chase' looking for evidence of a mass exodus in the 18th dynasty (and of course they cannot find it because the Exodus took place in the 13th dynasty).

Although hundreds of Chariot Wheels containing 4, 6 and 8 spokes have been found in the Red Sea at Nuweiba by Wyatt and others, these chariot wheels had been dated to the 15th dynasty or later and so the 12th dynasty was overlooked. The fact that no 12th dynasty chariots have been found would not be surprising even as the Bible tells us that Egypt lost all of it's army and chariots to the Red Sea at the time of the Exodus. As Egypt was totally devastated by the loss of it slaves, it's army, it's transport and it's king (not to mention plagues and earth quakes, it would have taken quite some time to rebuild following the Exodus even it they had the know how. If the Exodus took place 30 years into the 13th dynasty, one would not expect the chariot to have become common place again until the 14th or 15th dynasty. This is in fact what archaeological records show (if Wyatt's discovery of Chariot wheels in the Red Sea is excluded). The discovery of 4,6 and 8 spoked chariot Wheels in the Red Sea, however, suggests that the Chariot was in common usage in the 13th dynasty at least. In the 12th dynasty, hieroglyphs were painted onto the veneer of tombs and pyramids and are therefore not well preserved. 12th dynasty drawings do not confirm or refute the presence of chariots in that dynasty.

Rather than looking for 'Chariot Wheels', we should be looking for lots of 'mudbricks' and what better place to look than the 12th dynasty. Mud bricks were used most prolifically in the 12th dynasty, not only for buildings like the Labyrinth, but also for the pyramids of the 12th dynasty.

Aligning the Revised Egyptian Chronology with the Biblical Chronology results in a very different picture with the history Israel and Egypt purportedly matching better with "archaeological" records, which of course are subject to interpretation. Abraham is then considered to be a contemporary of Menes (who may be Mizraim according to Manetho). Imhotep is considered to be the Joseph of the Bible and Djoser is considered to be the Pharaoh that he served [13][17][21] [15] [52][54].

The revised chronology would fit with the theory that Amenemhet III was the Pharaoh of Moses who oppressed the Israelites making them make mud bricks [18]. Also of note is that the pyramid of Amenemhet III was made of mud bricks containing straw. [18] Amenemhet III was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty and lived 450 to 500 years after Pharaoh Djoser in the 3rd dynasty. [18] He had only daughters. One of his daughters Sobekneferu had an adopted son (Amenemhet IV) who disappeared before he could become King. It has been suggested that Amenemhet IV was Moses and Sobekneferu was the Princess that found Moses in the Nile. [18]

The revised chronology also fits with a 13th dynasty Exodus for which there is also strong independent evidence documented by Flinders Petrie. As evidenced by the finding of scarabs, buildings, tools, scrolls and baby skeletons in the Towns of Tel ed Daba and Kahum where the Israelite slaves who built the pyramids lived, it can be determined that the Exodus took place during the Reign of Neferhotep I during the 13th dynasty. According to the Bible the Exodus took place 480 years before the building of the temple in Jerusalem 966BC by Solomon (this date is not disputed by most archaeologists). This means that the Exodus took place in 1445BC. [18] The Hyksos took over lower Egypt shortly after this with little resistance. The Hyksos reigned in Lower Egypt for around 400years. This coincides with the period of the Judges in the Promised Land. The Hyksos were finally defeated by Ahmoses who founded the 18th dynasty which was the beginning of the New Kingdom of Egypt. It would therefore follow that the Hyksos (15th & 16th dynasties) which were contemporary with Joshua and the Judges, came to an end when King Saul destroyed the Amalekites (Hyksos) [18] after they were forced to leave Egypt by Ahmose I who started the 18th dynasty (New Kingdom of Egypt). [61] This would place Dynasty 17 as contemporary with dynasty 16.[18] Likewise the 18th dynasty as contemporary with the United Kingdom of Israel when Saul, David and Solomon were on the throne. This would also mean that Amenhotep I and Thutmose I of the 18th dynasty were contemporaries of David. [18] Hatshepsut was the Queen of Sheba who visited Solomon. [62] [63] Thutmose III (Shishak) came to power during the reign of Jereboam and became the greatest Pharaoh of Egypt. [18]

Horses and Chariots in Egypt

Stuart Piggott seems to be an acknowledged expert in regard to early wheeled vehicles. Here is a quote from his book "The Earliest Wheeled Transport From the Atlantic Coast to the Caspian Sea" (1983, pages 239--240) providing some helpful factual background information.

The central problem of the earliest wheeled vehicles in Europe from about 3000 BC is that of assessing the respective merits of two hypotheses, that assuming a restricted place and time for an invention subsequently rapidly and widely adopted, and that permitting independent invention of the basic principle of wheeled transport in more than one locality, with subsequent parallel regional development. In specific terms it raises the classic issue of 'diffusion' from an area with a higher degree of technological performance to others with less inventive expertise: the Near East and Neolithic Europe around 3000 BC. The problem is not rendered easier by the fact that we are dealing with wooden structures with a low survival value as archaeological artifacts, helped only by fired clay models among those societies which had a tradition of producing such miniature versions of everyday objects, itself a restricted cultural trait. In the instance of the earliest agricultural communities of south-east Europe from the seventh millennium BC, which did so model humans, animals, houses and even furniture, the absence of vehicle models is at least a suggestive piece of negative evidence for a failure to make this break-through in vehicle technology, despite an efficient agrarian economy and a precocious non-ferrous metallurgy before the beginning of the third millennium. When in that millennium the first European wheels, and depictions and models of wheeled vehicles, appear, radiocarbon dates show us how close in time these are to the comparable evidence for the first appearance in Sumer and Elam of the same invention, and the likelihood of independent discovery in east and west, virtually simultaneously, is sensibly diminished. The thesis of the rapid adoption of a novel piece of transport technology originating in the ancient Near East, as proposed by Childe thirty years ago, still remains the preferable alternative. One of the most recent finds in Western Europe, the wagon from Zilrich with disc wheels of the tripartite construction, and a calibrated radiocarbon date of 3030 BC, greatly strengthens this supposition, for the relatively complex technology is precisely that of the early third millennium wheels of Kish, Ur and Susa. .

The foregoing makes it clear that: 1. there is an intrinsic difficulty with survival of evidence of early wheeled vehicles, 2. wagons with tripartite disk wheels were in existence by 3030 B.C., and 3. this technology spread far and fast. Given these three facts, the problem of proving that the highly advanced civilization of Old Kingdom Egypt did NOT have wheeled military vehicles a full 580 years after the invention and spread of the tripartite wheel seems to me to be a very much greater one than that of proving that she did.

Specifically, archaeological data from Nahal Tillah seem to show unequivocal presence of domesticated horses within the Egyptian sphere of activity even prior to the Old Kingdom. Nahal Tillah is situated in the northern Negev of Israel. It displays a strong Egyptian presence in its archaeological record, causing the archaeologists involved to suggest royal Egyptian trading and administration relations at this site. The excavators took care to gather all bone fragments, as is normal today, and analyzed them according to type: sheep, pig, donkey, etc. They wrote:

The most surprising feature of the assemblage is the large number of equid remains, some of which are from domestic horses (Equus caballus). . There was a general supposition that domestic horses were not introduced into the Levant and Egypt until the second millennium, but Davis (1976) found horse remains at Arad from the third millennium and small domestic horses seem to have been present in the fourth millennium in the Chalcolithic period in the northern Negev (Grigson 1993). [Thomas E. Levy, David Alon, Yorke Rowan, Edwin C. M. van den Brink, Caroline Grigson, Augustin Holl, Patricia Smith, Paul Goldberg, Alan J. Witten, Eric Kansa, John Moreno, Yuval Yekutieli, Naomi Porat, Jonathan Golden, Leslie Dawson, and Morag Kersel, "Egyptian-Canaanite Interaction at Nahal Tillah, Israel (ca. 4500-3000 B. C. E.): An Interim Report on the 1994-1995 Excavations," Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 307 (August 1997): 1--51.] [1]

Slab of king Rahotep - History

The mastaba of Prince Rahotep and his his wife Nofret. It is here that Mariette found the famous life-size painted limestone statues.

The mastaba of Rahotep and Nofret

Statue pair of Rahotep and his beautiful wife Nofret. They were discovered here at their mastaba at Meidum. They were discovered by Mariette and can be seen at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The statues themselves are life size are are remarkably well preserved with the original paint pretty much intact. He is sitting on a seat with a high backrest, his right arm bent over his chest and his left placed on his thigh, and his hands clenched to suggest the attributes he would be holding. He wears a short kilt tied under his belly by a bold knot. He as short hair and a thin mustache. A heart shaped amulet hangs around his neck. His wife Nofret, designated as 'one known to the king,' is likewise seated, and places both both hands over her chest. She wears a heavy shoulder length wig, encircled by a diadem ornamented with rosettes. Part of her natural hair is visible at the front. She is enveloped in a long mantle under which appear the halters of her tight fitting dress. A broad collar composed of concentric rings of colored beads adorn her breast. In accordance with artistic conventions, the man's skin is painted ochre brown and the woman a pale cream color. Their eyes are inlaid in a copper frame: the retina is made of opaque quartz and the pupil of rock crystal. On the high backrest, the name and the titles of the statues owners are written in black hieroglyphs.

The mastaba Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret, is north of the mastaba of Nefermaat. It is here that Mariette found the twin famous painted limestone statues now on display at the Cairo Museum. The mastaba has a palace face motif, with white washed surface. The statues are believed to be real portraits of Rahotep and Nofret and are strikingly realistic. Rahotep was a son of Sneferu, a high priest of Ra at Heliopolis, and chief of all construction projects for the king.

This view and the three below are different views of the northern section of the mastaba.

Watch the video: στην πλάκα που επήγαινα.Μεζεδοπωλείο Επι Τω Λαϊκώτερον u0026 13